Four Eagles in One Day, 12-03-21

I got up around 6:00 AM and after feeding Esteban his breakfast and letting him outside for potty, I got myself ready to spend the day out at the Sacramento National Wildlife Refuge with my friend Roxanne.

It was horribly foggy in Sacramento, so much so that it was hard to see more than a car length or two in front of us. Roxanne did all the driving.(Thank you!) At one point, the fog was so heavy we were following the white line along the edge of the road, and accidentally went onto an off-ramp we didn’t want. Rox caught the error right away and was able to get back onto the freeway without a hitch.  Hah! 

The fog on I5 between Sacramento and Willowsin Glenn County.

The fog persisted for much of our drive, and we were worried that if it was that foggy at the refuge, we wouldn’t see anything.  But as we approached the refuge in Glenn County, we drove out of the fog into sunshine! Yay!

A Great Egret, Ardea alba, stands out among the wetlands.

Right from the parking lot, we were seeing birds: sparrows, Black Phoebes, Marsh Wrens and warblers, along with lots and lots of Red-Winged Blackbirds. We followed some Red-Tailed Hawks around the eucalyptus trees, and along the way found some owl/eagle pellets, Sulphur Shelf fungus, some lerps and eucalyptus galls. 

Nearer to the nature center, we were surprised to see some of the teasel starting to bloom already. The plants are so confused.

Then we came upon the field that usually houses the refuge’s vernal pools in the springtime. Right now, it was full of Killdeer running around and whining at one another. In among them were tiny American Pipits and grumpy looking Brewer’s Blackbirds.

The big surprise, though, was being able to see three Snipes in the golden-yellowed grass. The grass and the birds’ coloring camouflaged them so well, it was sometimes difficult to see them at all.

There were flocks of geese and ducks in the air above us almost all day. We were seeing mostly Snow Geese and Ross’s Geese today, but there were some Greater White-Fronted Geese thrown into the mix as well.

Among the ducks we saw Cinnamon Teals, American Wigeons, Northern Shovelers, and Green-Winged Teals, Northern Pintails, some Ruddy Ducks, Gadwalls, some occasional Buffleheads, Ring-Necked Ducks and Coots.  We got to see a large “vortex” of the Shovelers, and got to see a little bit of the courtship dance of the Gadwalls.

In one of the sloughs, we saw a couple of Common Gallinules.

CLICK HERE for the full album of photos (as soon as Amazon Website Services corrects their downed servers, grrrrrrrrr).

We saw raptors all along the auto tour route, mostly Red-Tailed Hawks, but we also saw an immature Red-Shouldered Hawk, an immature Cooper’s Hawk and… drum roll… FOUR Bald Eagles!

We spotted some of the eagles in what I call “the eagle tree” at a distance at first. The mature eagle’s bright white head made it extra visible.  We ended up seeing the one mature eagle and two immature eagles in the same tree, so we assumed it was probably a mom and her two offspring. These two younger eagles were about 2½ years old (based on their coloring). Further along the route, we saw one more immature eagle who was probably 3 or 3½ years old.       

The eagles don’t get their fully white head and tail until they’re 4 or 5 years old. The beak also changes color as they mature from steely gunmetal gray to bright yellow.

We were also seeing a lot of large mushrooms in the grass and along the berms around the ponds. I think they were all Stubble Rosegills.

We had left the house at 6:30 AM and got home by 3:00 PM. It was a long day folded up in the car, but we saw a lot and laughed a lot, so it was fun and the hours went by quickly.


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Species List:

  1. American Coot, Fulica americana
  2. American Kestrel, Falco sparverius
  3. American Pipit, Anthus rubescens
  4. American Wigeon, Anas americana
  5. Audubon’s Warbler, Yellow-Rumped Warbler, Setophaga coronata auduboni
  6. Azolla, Water Fern, Azolla filiculoides
  7. Bald Eagle, Haliaeetus leucocephalus
  8. Black Phoebe, Sayornis nigricans
  9. Black-Necked Stilt, Himantopus mexicanus
  10. Black-Tailed Jackrabbit, Lepus californicus
  11. Brewer’s Blackbird, Euphagus cyanocephalus
  12. Bufflehead Duck, Bucephala albeola
  13. California Bordered Plant Bug, Largus californicus
  14. Cinnamon Teal, Anas cyanoptera
  15. Common Gallinule, Gallinula galeata
  16. Cooper’s Hawk, Acipiter cooperii
  17. Coyote Brush, Baccharis pilularis
  18. Eucalyptus Gall Wasp, Ophelimus maskelli [speckled; flat galls all over the leaf surface]
  19. Gadwall Duck, Mareca Strepera
  20. Great Blue Heron, Ardea herodias
  21. Great Egret, Ardea alba
  22. Greater White-Fronted Goose, Anser albifrons
  23. Green-Winged Teal, Anas carolinensis
  24. Hare’s Foot Inkcap Mushroom, Coprinopsis lagopus
  25. Interior Sandbar Willow, Salix interior
  26. Killdeer, Charadrius vociferous
  27. Lesser Goldfinch, Spinus psaltria
  28. Long-Billed Curlew, Numenius americanus [in a rice field in the Yolo Bypass area]
  29. Mallard Duck, Anas platyrhynchos
  30. Marsh Wren, Cistothorus palustris
  31. Mourning Dove, Zenaida macroura
  32. Narrowleaf Cattail, Typha angustifolia
  33. Narrowleaf Milkweed, Mexican Whorled Milkweed, Asclepias fascicularis
  34. Northern Pintail, Anas acuta
  35. Northern Shoveler, Anas clypeata
  36. Pacific Pond Turtle, Western Pond Turtle, Actinemys marorata
  37. Paper Wasp, Black Paper Wasp, European Paper Wasp, Polistes dominula
  38. Paper Wasp, Red Paper wasp, Apache Paper Wasp, Polistes apachus
  39. Pleated Inkcap Mushroom, Parasola plicatilis
  40. Raven, Common Raven, Corvus corax
  41. Red Gum Eucalyptus, River Redgum, Eucalyptus camaldulensis
  42. Red Gum Lerp Psyllid, Glycaspis brimblecombei [on eucalyptus]
  43. Red-Shouldered Hawk, Buteo lineatus
  44. Red-Tailed Hawk, Western Red-Tailed Hawk, Buteo jamaicensis calurus
  45. Red-Winged Blackbird, Agelaius phoeniceus
  46. Ring-Necked Duck, Aythya collaris
  47. Ross’s Goose, Anser rossii
  48. Ruddy Duck, Oxyura jamaicensis
  49. Sacred Datura, Jimsonweed,  Datura wrightii
  50. Salt Grass, Distichlis spicata
  51. Savannah Sparrow, Passerculus sandwichensis
  52. Snow Goose, Chen caerulescens
  53. Sulphur Shelf Fungus, Western Hardwood Sulphur Shelf, Laetiporus gilbertsonii
  54. Swamp Smartweed, Persicaria hydropiperoides [white, single stem]
  55. Tule, Common Tule, Schoenoplectus acutus
  56. Tundra Swan, Cygnus columbianus [in a rice field in the Yolo Bypass area]
  57. Turkey Vulture, Cathartes aura
  58. Western Kingbird, Tyrant Flycatcher, Tyrannus verticalis
  59. Western Meadowlark, Sturnella neglecta
  60. White Stubble Rosegill, Volvopluteus gloiocephalusi [white or gray mushroom, slick cap with colored center, pale pink to gills, papery volva]
  61. White-Crowned Sparrow, Zonotrichia leucophrys
  62. Wild Teasel, Dipsacus fullonum
  63. Wilson’s Snipe, Gallinago delicata

A Walk at Gristmill, 11-30-21

I woke up around 4:00 this morning with a dream in my head, and wrote it down before going back to bed. Then I got up around 6:00 AM, fed the dog his breakfast, and got myself ready for a walk at the Gristmill Access to the American River. I wasn’t expecting to see much, but I really needed the exercise, so out I went.

The American River as seen from the Gristmill access point.

The first thing I saw when I drove into the area was a Western Gray Squirrel munching on an acorn in a Tree of Heaven tree, Ailanthus altissima. The trees are invasive (from China), but this time of year they sport some really beautiful color. I got still shots and a video clip of the squirrel.

I was able to find some specimens of fungi including Rosegill mushrooms, Yellow Fieldcaps, and Common Fieldcaps, among others. I also found some Cytospora Canker, Cytospora chrysosperma. I thought at first I was seeing Orange Hobnail Canker, but closer inspection revealed that rather than hard little knobs, I was seeing curling strings — typical of Cytospora.

Under the caps of some of the mushrooms I found some tiny mites and fungus gnats. I was looking for springtails, too, but didn’t find any.

I wasn’t really looking for lichen today, but saw some really nice specimens I couldn’t pass up.

CLICK HERE for the full album of photos.

Saw and heard quite a few birds, but the funniest sighting was seeing a European Starling sitting up, haughty, in its tree… and it was totally oblivious to a White-Breasted Nuthatch climbing up the side of the tree right next to it.

I could hear Nuttall’s Woodpeckers in the trees around me, and even caught a glimpse of one, but I couldn’t get any photos of it because it moved too fast. A Downy Woodpecker was more cooperative, and let me get some good shots before it took off.

I also found one of the best “stick birds” I’d ever seen. It looked like a turkey sitting down on a stump.

I walked for about 3½ hours and then headed home. This was hike #88 in my annual hike challenge.


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Species List:

  1. Belted Kingfisher, Megaceryle alcyon
  2. Black Phoebe, Sayornis nigricans
  3. Blue Elderberry, Sambucus nigra cerulea
  4. Bufflehead Duck, Bucephala albeola
  5. California Quail, Callipepla californica [heard]
  6. California Scrub Jay, Aphelocoma californica
  7. Candleflame Lichen, Candelaria concolor [bright yellow-orange]
  8. Common Fieldcap Mushroom, Agrocybe pediades
  9. Common Goldeneye, Bucephala clangula
  10. Crow, American Crow, Corvus brachyrhynchos
  11. Cytospora Canker, Cytospora chrysosperma [bright orange fruiting body, looks like frozen dodder]
  12. Dark-Winged Fungus Gnat, Bradysia sp.
  13. Downy Woodpecker, Picoides pubescens
  14. European Starling, Sturnus vulgaris
  15. Farinose Cartilage Lichen,  Ramalina farinacea [like Oakmoss but very thin branches]
  16. Fremont’s Cottonwood, Populus fremontii
  17. Frosted Rim-Lichen, Lecanora caesiorubella [white with white apothecia]
  18. Fungus Gnat, Family: Mycetophilidae [mosquito-like]
  19. Giraffe Spots, Peniophora albobadia [flat, brown w/light rim]
  20. Green Shield Lichen, Flavoparmelia caperata
  21. Hooded Rosette Lichen, Physcia adscendens [hairs/eyelashes on the tips of the lobes]
  22. Interior Live Oak, Quercus wislizeni
  23. Linopodes Mite, Linopodes sp. [tiny translucent spidery-looking thing with very ling front legs]
  24. Liquid Ambar, American Sweetgum, Liquidambar styraciflua
  25. Mallard Duck, Anas platyrhynchos
  26. Mistletoe, American Mistletoe, Phoradendron leucarpum
  27. Mourning Dove, Zenaida macroura
  28. Northern Flicker, Colaptes auratus
  29. Nuttall’s Woodpecker, Picoides nuttallii
  30. Oak Apple, California Gall Wasp, Andricus quercuscalifornicus
  31. Pale Brittlestem Mushroom, Candolleomyces candolleanus
  32. Pin-Cushion Sunburst Lichen, Polycauliona polycarpa [bright orange, apothecia, close, piled]
  33. Red-Legged Mite, Penthaleus sp.
  34. Rio Grande Wild Turkey, Meleagris gallopavo intermedia
  35. Shrubby Sunburst Lichen, Polycauliona candelaria
  36. Snowy Egret, Egretta thula
  37. Speckled Greenshield Lichen, Flavopunctelia flaventior
  38. Tree of Heaven, Ailanthus altissima
  39. Valley Oak, Quercus lobata
  40. Western Gray Squirrel, Sciurus griseus
  41. Western Ragweed, Ambrosia psilostachya
  42. White Horehound, Marrubium vulgare
  43. White Stubble Rosegill, Volvopluteus gloiocephalusi [white or gray mushroom, slick cap with colored center, pale pink to gills, papery volva]
  44. White-Breasted Nuthatch, Sitta carolinensis
  45. Yellow Fieldcap Mushroom, Bolbitius titubans
  46. ?? Half-Cup Fungus with no gills, Stereum sp.
  47. ?? Shredded wood pulp

So Many Birds in the Ag Fields, 11-27-21

I got up at 6:00 AM and got myself and Esteban ready to go on a drive to the Cosumnes River Preserve. Around 6:30 AM I headed out to the preserve with Esteban. It was clear and cold, around 37ºF, with some ground-fog still lingering around.

I went first to the boardwalk area. The gate was still closed, so I couldn’t get the car in there. I couldn’t see any birds in the pond by the parking lot, anyway, so I decided to drive around Desmond and Bruceville Roads.

Mostly Greater White-Fronted Geese, Anser albifrons, and some Great Egrets, Ardea alba, in one of the ag fields along Bruceville Road.

The birding there was VERY satisfying. In the agricultural fields there were literally thousands of White-Fronted Geese with some Snow Geese mixed in. They were all talking to one another, so, the noise level was pretty high. In some fields there were also phalanxes of Great Egrets and gangs of gulls in among the geese.

Lots of little sparrows and finches were flitting in the trees and scrub along the edges of the fields, and some Meadowlarks in the grass. In the tules and on the top of the shorter trees were Red-Winged Blackbirds.

CLICK HERE for the full album of photos.

There were quite a few Sandhill Cranes noshing in the fields, too. On of the cranes was sporting some leg bands, so I report it to the International Crane Foundation. I’m hoping they’ll be able to tell me where the bird migrated from.

Banded Sandhill Crane, Grus canadensis

I was surprised by the number of raptors I saw out there, including a pair of Bald Eagles. I’d heard of eagles near the preserve before, but this was the first time I had actually seen any. It’s always exciting for me to come across them. As I was watching, the eagles took off flying and went right for one of the large flocks of geese on the ground. Within seconds, all of the birds on the ground were in the air in a flurry of wings and feathers — and so much noise!

It seemed to me that the eagles would down a prey, eat their fill, and then fly off. Once the eagles were gone, the Red-Tailed Hawks and Northern Harriers moved in to eat the leftovers. Then the Turkey Vultures cleaned everything up.

In this video you see two Northern Harriers eating a carcass. I think it’s a mother and her offspring.

There were also the usual suspects in the water: Killdeer, Greater Yellowlegs, Coots, Northern Shovelers, Green-Winged Teals, Gadwall ducks and Pintails, and even a few Bufflehead ducks. Those little guys always make me smile. Some of the Northern Shovelers were swimming in a feeding vortex,make the water swirl like a tornado to pull food up from the bottom of the pond.

As I was driving back to the boardwalk area, I saw hawks resting on top of the telephone poles: a couple of Red-Tails and a Red-Shouldered Hawk.  There still wasn’t much to see at the boardwalk, so I drove out to Staten Island Road to see if anything was there.

Surprisingly there wasn’t a lot to see there. I mean, there were Sandhill Cranes and some of the regular species of duck, but they were few and far between.   I did get to glimpse some Audubon Warblers, saw some Tree Swallows and a Kestrel on the powerlines, and large flocks of Pelicans and Tundra Swans in the distance.

A female American Kestrel, Falco sparverius

There are always big trucks moving back and forth on this road, but today it seemed like they were purposely harassing the birders; rushing down on us, dust flying off their tires, honking at us. It was sooooo annoying.            

I left and did a short loop around along Desmond and Bruceville Roads again before heading home. I was out for about 4 hours.


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Species List:

  1. American Coot, Fulica americana
  2. American Kestrel, Falco sparverius
  3. American Pipit, Anthus rubescens
  4. American White Pelican, Pelecanus erythrorhynchos
  5. Audubon’s Warbler, Yellow-Rumped Warbler, Setophaga coronata auduboni
  6. Bald Eagle, Haliaeetus leucocephalus
  7. Black Phoebe, Sayornis nigricans
  8. Black-Necked Stilt, Himantopus mexicanus
  9. Brewer’s Blackbird, Euphagus cyanocephalus
  10. Bufflehead Duck, Bucephala albeola
  11. Cackling Goose, Branta hutchinsii
  12. California Ground Squirrel, Otospermophilus beecheyi
  13. California Wild Rose, Rosa californica
  14. Dunlin, Calidris alpina
  15. Gadwall Duck, Mareca Strepera
  16. Glaucous Gull, Larus hyperboreus
  17. Great Blue Heron, Ardea herodias
  18. Great Egret, Ardea alba
  19. Greater White-Fronted Goose, Anser albifrons
  20. Greater Yellowlegs, Tringa melanoleuca
  21. Green-Winged Teal, Anas carolinensis
  22. Herring Gull, Larus argentatus [spot on bill, gray legs, pale eye]
  23. House Finch, Haemorhous mexicanus
  24. Killdeer, Charadrius vociferous
  25. Least Sandpiper, Calidris minutilla
  26. Long-Billed Dowitcher, Limnodromus scolopaceus
  27. Northern Harrier, Marsh Hawk, Circus hudsonius
  28. Northern Mockingbird, Mimus polyglottos
  29. Northern Pintail, Anas acuta
  30. Northern Shoveler, Anas clypeata
  31. Red-Shouldered Hawk, Buteo lineatus
  32. Red-Tailed Hawk, Western Red-Tailed Hawk, Buteo jamaicensis calurus
  33. Red-Winged Blackbird, Agelaius phoeniceus
  34. Ring-Billed Gull, Larus delawarensis [ black ring, light eye, yellow legs]
  35. Rio Grande Wild Turkey, Meleagris gallopavo intermedia
  36. Rough Cocklebur, Xanthium strumariumswal
  37. Sandhill Crane, Grus canadensis
  38. Savannah Sparrow, Passerculus sandwichensis
  39. Say’s Phoebe, Sayornis saya
  40. Snow Goose, Chen caerulescens
  41. Snowy Egret, Egretta thula
  42. Tree Swallow, Tachycineta bicolor
  43. Tundra Swan, Cygnus columbianus
  44. Turkey Vulture, Cathartes aura
  45. Valley Oak, Quercus lobata
  46. Western Meadowlark, Sturnella neglecta
  47. White-Crowned Sparrow, Zonotrichia leucophrys

Turkeys in the Trees, 11-23-21

I got up around 6:30 am again and got myself ready to go out to the Effie Yeaw Nature Preserve for a walk.

When I got there I couldn’t help but notice that most of the Wild Turkeys were all up in the trees, complaining like there was something on the ground that frightened them. I figured it must have been rattlesnakes or a coyote, but I couldn’t see either one.

I was hoping for some slimes molds and fungi, but I don’t think it’s really wet enough here — at least where I’m looking. I did find some white slime mold (in a very hear-to-photograph space, and something that I thought might have been black slime mold. It turned out to be a sort of lichen; one I’d never documented before so that was cool. No great photos, though.

Honeycomb Coral Slime Mold, Ceratiomyxa fruticulosa, which may be covered by another kind of fungus

A lot of the fungi that I was able to spot was off the trail — and you can’t leave the trails at Effie — so I was relegated to getting distance shot of them.

At one spot, though, I found some Red-Threads [AKA Pleated Marasmius]. They’re such pretty little things with their wine-colored caps and pale, broadly-spread-apart gills. I thought at first they might be Bleeding Mycena, but the stipe didn’t bleed when broken.

Near the riverside, I stopped to see if I could spot some salmon in the water. I did see the splash of some of them racing against the current, but couldn’t really see the fish themselves.

I got to see two different species of hawks along the trail. First, I caught sight of a Cooper’s Hawk, and then I saw a Red-Shouldered Hawk flying from one tree to another.

When I pointed the Red-Shouldered Hawk out to a newbie birder, she tried to argue that it was a juvenile Red-Tailed Hawk or a Cooper’s Hawk, and I explained why I believed it was a Red-Shouldered (the reddish capelet around the neck, the mottled back, the barred tail). She insisted the barring would be thinner on a Red-Shouldered and, she complained, she couldn’t see the rusty coloring of its breast. I told her she couldn’t see that because the bird had its back to her. (Duh!) Then the bird turned around flew down into the grass trying to catch something. “Oh,” the woman said, “I guess you’re right. That is a Red-Shouldered Hawk.”  Never question me, woman. Hah!

CLICK HERE for the full album of photos.

Later, I was watching the Acorn Woodpeckers at their granary tree and saw one that was doing “maintenance”. When it found a rotten acorn or something that didn’t quite fit, it threw it on the ground. I’d seen the woodpeckers move acorns from one hole to the next but I’d never seen them toss stuff away before. A new behavior for me.

I could hear a lot of different birds — Nuttall’s woodpeckers, Oak Titmice, California Towhees, Spotted Towhees, California Quail — but only managed to catch a glimpse of some of them, and didn’t get photos of any of them. I saw several small flocks of Canada Geese flying overhead. There were Black Phoebes around, and I got photos of some of them.

The Interior Live Oak trees were boasting a variety of tiny galls from the summer months, most of the galls gone brown with age.  But I noticed that one many of the leaves there was the telltale dark brownish lines left by more galls that had seemingly been aborted before they grew. The sudden shifts in the weather must have been too much for the miniscule larvae inside the galls, and both they and the galls died.

I also got to see a few of the deer on the property.

I noted, as I was leaving the preserve, that the “rattlesnake habitat” play area had been turned into a new native plant garden. Well, that was a smart thing to do.

Refurbishment of the “rattlesnake habitat” into a native plants garden.

Previously, the area had been all stepping stones and boulders, and was meant for kids to jump around and climb… but the rattlesnakes loved hiding and sleeping along the edges of the rocks — and I know of at least one occasion when a child was bitten by one of the snakes (because I was there when it happened, and took some photos of the snake when it had been captured live and put in a bucket to be transferred to another part of the preserve). Workers pulled out all of the boulders except for one, and set down flowers beds surrounded by river rocks. We’ll see how much the snakes like that.

I walked for about 3½ hours and then headed home. This was hike #87 of my annual hike challenge.


Buy Me a Coffee!

Donate $5 to buy me a coffee so I have the fuel I need to keep exploring and bring more of nature to you. Thanks!

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Species List:

  1. Acorn Woodpecker, Melanerpes formicivorus
  2. Anna’s Hummingbird, Calypte anna [heard]
  3. Black Phoebe, Sayornis nigricans
  4. Blue Oak, Quercus douglasii
  5. Bumpy Rim-Lichen, Lecanora hybocarpa [tan to brown apothecia]
  6. California Camouflage Lichen, Melanelixia californica [dark green with brown apothecia, on trees]
  7. California Mycena Mushroom, Mycena californiensis
  8. California Quail, Callipepla californica [heard]
  9. California Scrub Jay, Aphelocoma californica
  10. California Sycamore, Western Sycamore, Platanus racemose
  11. California Towhee, Melozone crissalis
  12. California Wild Grape, Vitis californica
  13. Canada Goose, Branta canadensis
  14. Chinook Salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha
  15. Columbian Black-Tailed Deer, Odocoileus hemionus columbianus
  16. Common Bonnet Mushroom, Mycena galericulata
  17. Common Merganser, Mergus merganser [male, in river]
  18. Common Sunburst Lichen, Golden Shield Lichen, Xanthoria parietina [yellow-orange,on wood/trees]
  19. Cooper’s Hawk, Acipiter cooperii
  20. Coyote Brush, Baccharis pilularis [female]
  21. Crow, American Crow, Corvus brachyrhynchos
  22. Cumberland Rock-Shield Lichen, Xanthoparmelia cumberlandia [gray on rocks, brown apotheca
  23. Cumberland Rock-Shield Lichen, Xanthoparmelia cumberlandia [gray on rocks, brown apotheca]
  24. Dog Vomit Slime Mold, Fuligo septica
  25. Dryad’s Saddle, Hawk’s Wing, Polyporus squamosus
  26. European Starling, Sturnus vulgaris
  27. False Turkey-Tail, Stereum hirsutum [thin, flattish, brown underside]
  28. Fremont’s Cottonwood, Populus fremontii
  29. Gold Dust Lichen, Chrysothrix candelaris
  30. Green Shield Lichen, Flavoparmelia caperata
  31. Honey Fungus, Honey Mushroom, Armillaria mellea
  32. Honeycomb Coral Slime Mold, Ceratiomyxa fruticulosa [white]
  33. Hooded Rosette Lichen, Physcia adscendens [hairs/eyelashes on the tips of the lobes]
  34. Interior Live Oak, Quercus wislizeni
  35. Kernel Flower Gall Wasp, Callirhytis serricornis
  36. Lace Lichen, Ramalina menziesii
  37. Mealy Rim Lichen, Lecanora strobilina [greenish apothecia]
  38. Needle Lichen, Chaenotheca ferruginea [tiny black raised spots on wood]
  39. Northern Flicker, Colaptes auratus
  40. Northern Mockingbird, Mimus polyglottos
  41. Nuttall’s Woodpecker, Picoides nuttallii
  42. Oak Titmouse, Baeolophus inornatus
  43. Oak-loving Gymnopus Mushrooms, Gymnopus dryophilus [tan-orange with pale gills; cap can be flat or curved up as it ages]
  44. Ochre Bracket Fungus, Trametes ochracea
  45. Ocre Spreading Tooth Fungus, Steccherinum ochraceum
  46. Paltry Puffball, Puffball Fungus, Bovista californica
  47. Pleated Marasmius, Red Thread, Marasmius plicatulus
  48. Pumpkin Gall Wasp, Dryocosmus minusculus
  49. Red-Shouldered Hawk, Buteo lineatus
  50. Rio Grande Wild Turkey, Meleagris gallopavo intermedia
  51. Scaly Rustgill Mushroom, Gymnopilus sapineus [rusty red top, yellowish gills that turn rusty with age]
  52. Spotted Towhee, Pipilo maculatus
  53. Strap Lichen, Western Strap Lichen, Ramalina leptocarpha [without soredia]
  54. Sulphur Shelf Fungus, Western Hardwood Sulphur Shelf, Laetiporus gilbertsonii
  55. Turkey Vulture, Cathartes aura
  56. Two-Horned Gall Wasp, unisexual gall, summer generation,  Dryocosmus dubiosus [small, green or mottled, on back of leaf along the midvein]
  57. White Alder, Alnus rhombifolia
  58. Yellow Fieldcap Mushroom, Bolbitius titubans

Travels of a Certified California Naturalist