Online Nature Journal Class, Session #2

In February of 2020, I started an online nature journaling class through Cornell. [There will also be a separate page showing all of the classes in case you’d like to take the course yourself or maybe want to start nature journaling on your own.]

This is an image from the lesson itself.

This session focused on different marking techniques, and how to depict light and shadow.

  • Keeping your lines short and sketchy for more accurate drawings.
  • Varying your strokes to capture shapes, textures, and dimension.
  • Understanding light to capture three dimensions on a two dimensional page.

“Every artist was first an amateur.”

Creating Texture:  You can creature texture on an object using a variety of techniques:

  • Hatching: all the shading lines go in the same direction
  • Contour Hatching: all the shading lines go in the same direction but also follow the contour of the object.
  • Cross Hatching: shading line cross one another (like “###”)
  • Stippling: shading with tiny dots
  • Scribbling: literally scribble in the shaded area
  • Blending: can use any of the above and then blend/smudge the lines with your finger tip or a “blending stump” [available from] The softer the lead in your pencil (B or 2B),the more easily you can blend it

Here are my drawings from this lesson.

Practicing drawing in a single line versus short sketchy lines, and trying different shading/texture techniques.
Here I tried different techniques just drawing the apothecia of a species of lichen.

I used to do all kinds of “pointillism” (stippling) drawings, so I’m familiar with that one, but that takes a LOT of time and concentration, so I can’t see doing that in the field.  And for blending, I need a much softer lead in my pencil. So, I ordered some 2B lead and some blending stumps from

I tried different techniques with simple shapes, like the apothecia on lichen.  I liked using the pencil more than the pen for most of the techniques.

The class suggested creating a “value scale” (light to dark) to use as a guide before you start drawing, but I didn’t think that was helpful at all.  I didn’t know what technique(s) I was going to use until I started drawing, and I tended to mix several of them, so a single value scale in a single style was pretty much worthless (for me anyway).

With any three dimensional object you see, be it a plant or animal, light and shadow fall across that object, and that’s how you see that it’s three dimensional. This brings me to our topic for this lesson, Chiaroscuro. [KEE-ar-oh-SKOOR-oh] The word Chiaroscuro comes from the Italian words for light and dark. It’s a term to describe the way light and shadow fall across an object.

Q. After trying some of your new drawing skills, was it easy to see where and how each could be applied? Are you starting to feel more comfortable putting marks on the page? Which do you still want to work on?

I am feeling a bit more confident about laying down shapes and doing shading, but I know I’ll need more work to get comfortable with it in the field.  I need more work with fur and feather’s too as they seem daunting.  Drawing things likes eggs and lichen seem easy in comparison.

It’s easier seeing the differentiation of shadows when looking at black-and-white images (rather than color images), and when outdoors the light will change a lot from one moment to the next, so catching the shadows may prove even more difficult in the field.

CLICK HERE for my class notes on Making Your Mark.

Online Nature Journal Class, Session #1

In February of 2020, I started an online nature journaling class through Cornell. [There will also be a separate page showing all of the classes in case you’d like to take the course yourself or maybe want to start nature journaling on your own.]

A sample of someone else’s nature journal as shown in the class.

Here are some of the notes I took from the first class:

  • Whether you’ve set out to document your travels or to celebrate your back woods, you’re carrying forward a centuries-old tradition of combining science and art to learn about the world.
  • You can submit your photos on iNaturalist!!
  • Research shows that it takes 66 days (10 weeks) to build a habit. So, stick with it! The more frequently, and longer you nature journal, the more natural it will feel.
  • Carrying your nature journal is like carrying your field journal – and carrying your memories of your outdoor explorations.
  • As distinctive as each page is— incorporating a basic structure for your entries that includes the date, time, place, and weather conditions is highly recommended.Start with a drawing, then add your notations.  Later look up the scientific name and whatever other information intrigues you.
  • Your style can and probably will change over time.  If the blank page is daunting to start with, make boxes on it that you can fill in. If color is daunting, start in black and white with pencil and waterproof pens.Break things down into geometric shapes first to help you draw and capture an impression of your subject.
  • Rather than doing a daily journal, or a trip journal, select one image for every day of the month and do a month of observations on one or two pages.
  • Sit for at least one hour focused on one thing…  Use several pages if you want to. 
My finalized drawing of the Warbler with notes

For the drawing of the Yellow Warbler I started my drawing in pencil, then added splashes of color then outlines things in black.  I noticed as I was doing this that I was “distracted” by nagging thoughts about shape and proportion, and I had to dismiss those in order to proceed with the image. As I was working, I was also distracted from the bird by the realization that there were LICHEN on the branch the bird was sitting on.  I’m really into lichen right now, so that detail pulled my focus for a while. I think the biggest thing I noticed as I was working was how the bird’s feet were wrapped around the branch.  I focused on its toes for a bit, and how the toenails were sooooo long.  When I’d finished with the drawing, I added a date and a few notes.

Q: What advantages do drawings have over photos?

Drawing forced me to break the image down into components.  I used the technique of creating the bird out of geometric shapes, and that really helped. I don’t think I got the proportions right, but I won’t beat myself up over that. 

The “advantage” to drawing is that it made me STOP and really LOOK at the bird: how its body was put together; what its eye color was; what the beak color and shape were; how its feet were holding the branch.  I also noticed more about the branch itself; the lichen on in; the gnarly wood; the leaf with the circle cut out of it (probably by a leaf-cutter bee)… I was more “present” with the bird and its surroundings.

If the nature journal is supposed to act, in part, as an assist to scientific understanding and knowledge of wildlife and their habitat, then noticing and capturing the “small stuff” (like the lichen) would be important.

It makes me wonder what sort of habitat the Yellow Warblers prefer to live in.  Will Climate Change affect them?  Do they interact at all with the lichen (for nesting, etc.)?  It makes me want to learn a lot more.

Q: What advantages do photos have over drawings?

The most obvious advantage to me is that a photo freeze-frames a particular moment in time, and you can take that image home with you and draw from it (rather than sitting out in the field)

Photos also have the advantage of keeping your subject absolutely still. Birds flit all over the place; trying to do a drawing of a moving subject would make me, as a beginner at nature journaling, absolutely crazy.

Another advantage: The light stays the same.  When you’re in the field, even a few minutes can completely change the way the light on your subject looks and acts.Thank you, Karlyn, for paying the tuition for this class for me so I could take it. I’m hoping that I’ll get comfortable enough with the process to help teach other naturalists, and maybe even host some nature journaling outings!

  • CLICK HERE for a PDF of my class notes on getting started
  • CLICK HERE for a PDF of my class notes on jumping right in

First Time at Deer Creek Hills, 02-22-20

I got up around 5:30 this morning, and got the dog potties and fed before I got dressed and then headed out with my friend Roxanne for breakfast.  We left the house around 6:30 and went over to Brookfields Restaurant in Rancho Cordova.

Our final destination today was Deer Creek Hills Preserve, a working cattle ranch in Sloughouse off of Highway 16, which boasts several trails, large rock outcroppings and a Blue Oak woodland on its 4,060 acres.  It’s overseen by the Sacramento Regional Parks system,which co-owns the property,  The County works with the Sacramento Valley Conservancy to manage the ranch and public access to it. 

We thought it would take us and hour to get to the place, but our calculations were off a little bit, so we had LOTS of time for breakfast and a short jaunt out to the Mather Fields Vernal Pools before the gates at Deer Creek opened at 9:00 am.

Breakfast was yummy, and we took our time enjoying it.  The visit to the Mather Fields Vernal Pools area was short – and somewhat disappointing and sad. We’ve had no rain this February; the only time on record this has happened.  So, the areas where the pools would normally sit are bone dry. That means no specialty flowers are blooming; no vernal pool critters have a place to live – and those eggs that were laid in the pools when they had water in them in January are now dead because the water is gone.

The vernal pools were dried and nonexistent today. It’s so sad to see them this way in February.

We could hear Western Meadowlarks, but couldn’t get a bead on them because they were in the grass. We also heard some Ring-Necked Pheasants croaking at each other, but couldn’t see them either.  On our way OUT of the area, though, we were treated to the sight of a White-Tailed Kite on the telephone lines with his breakfast in his talons – a dark mouse, by the look of it.  We were able to get a few photos of it before it got disgusted with us and flew off.

White Tailed Kite, Elanus leucurus, with its breakfast

We then went on to Deer Creek Hills and got there just as the gates opened around 9:00 am.  One problem with visiting this location is that they open the gates at 9 o’clock and close them at 1:00 pm… so if you can’t walk fast, you can see what there is to see on the trails.  Opening the gates at 9:00 am also means you don’t get to see any crepuscular animals that might be on the property. (We thought we saw elk tracks in the dirt.)  And you have to start your walk when it’s already almost too warm to hike outside. 

It was in the 70’s when we were there – which in itself is weird for February – and got warmer as we went along.  My heat tolerance threshold is pretty low (anything over 72° is “too hot” for me to walk in), so I was burned out before we even got halfway through the trail.  Our pace is very slow, of course, but I don’t think there was any way I could ever complete the 3-mile trail we were on before 1:00 pm. 

CLICK HERE for the full album of photos.

Anyway, the drive in was interesting because there were a lot of Blue Oak trees along the road, and a small creek (Crevice Creek) along the driver’s side of the car which still had some water in it.  And there were some really beautiful outcroppings of boulders on both sides of the car. On one of the outcroppings a Turkey Vulture was sitting on the very top; and in one of the trees there was a flock of about 7 or 8 of the vultures. 

Turkey Vulture, Cathartes aura,on a rock outcropping

We had to cross a shallow section on Crevice Creek, and then continue on to the corral and cattle-chute area before parking and signing in at the check-in table.  Roxanne signed up is while I took advantage of the porta potty nearby.  Had to get rid of my breakfast coffee and orange juice. 

Around that same time, a yoga class was starting and all of the participants mounted one of the hills to do yoga to the sun.  What a neat idea!

Yoga class saluting the sun

We decided to take the shorter of the two trails that were open.  One was four miles long and the other was three.  We chose the shorter one in part because of its length, but mostly because it was supposed to go around the Blue Oak woodland there. None of those oaks had leaves on them yet, so no chances for shade (or to spot galls).  There were a few live oaks on the property, but they were few and far between.

We didn’t get very far before we were sidetracked by a tree covered in lichen and then found some rock outcroppings with even more lichen on them including some very impressive bright red-orange stuff and rock tripe. 

In some areas on the rocks the lichen were butted up against one another or overlapping… so many different kinds!  We also found some large pink quartz rocks on the ground, and the green lichen against the subtle pink of the quartz was so lovely…

Ear-leaf Lichen, Normandina pulchella, on pink quartz

There were also cattle all over everywhere.  We saw small herds of them dotting the landscape, including some moms with their calves.  And at one point we could hear what we thought was probably a bull bellowing loudly – and saw a small herd of cows and calves running away from the sound. Never saw the bull.  We did find a few old cattle bones, though; huge sun-bleached specimens broken into pieces.

In a different shaded area, we were greeted by the loud songs of Re-Winged Blackbirds and Western Meadowlarks, but again had trouble actually seeing the birds.  In that same area, we found Blessed Milk Thistle plants just starting to sprout out, along with some Stinging Nettle plants.  The nettles are interesting in that they have “trichomes” on the leaves and stems which can inject histamine and other chemicals into the skin causing a burning sensation. 

This is also a host plant for Red Admiral Butterflies, Vanessa atalanta.  The butterfly lays its eggs on the leaves, and when the caterpillars hatch, they fold the stinging leaves around them to ward off predators. This is a butterfly with two brood per year: March and October.  Female Red Admirals will only mate with male that hold territory and have strong flight patterns. 

Most of the trail was without cover and open to sun, and after a couple of hours, I just couldn’t go any farther, so we turned around and headed back to the coral.  Partway there, I needed to sit down somewhere.  There were no obliging rocks or tree stumps in that particular area, but luckily there was a porta-potty on the side of the trail, so I sat in there for a few minutes until I could go on.

A little further back down the trail, we sat on an obliging tree stump to take another look at the lichen there and to see if there was anything interesting on the underside of fallen branches.  On one of them we found some worms and a Harvestman.  It’s hard to narrow down the species on these guys because there are 6,650 known species worldwide. They look like spiders but they’re not. They’re ancient arachnids with fused body parts. They only have two eyes (spiders can have 6 to 8 eyes), they don’t have silk glands so they can’t spin webs, and they have no fangs (so no venom). To protect themselves, then, Harvestmen use camouflage and chemical defenses. 

The one we found was so well camouflaged, it was difficult to see him even in close-up photos. Based on the wicked-looking pedipalps on the Harvestman we found, I think it’s the species, Phalangium opilio.

Harvestman, Phalangium opilio. The inset shows the Harvestman’s shiny black eyes and gnarly-looking claw-like pedipalps.

When we got back to the coral, we walked slowly up to the car and found some Johnnytuck just starting to show up.  We couldn’t remember it’s other common name (Butter-and-Eggs) so we started making up names for it like Cheese-and-Crackers and Bananas-and-Cheese…and now Bananas-and-Cheese is stuck in my head. Every time I see this plant, now, that’s what I think of. Hah!

Johnnytuck, Butter and Eggs, “Bananas and Cheese”, Triphysaria eriantha

Species List:

  1. Blessed Milk Thistle, Silybum marianum
  2. Blue Oak, Quercus douglasii
  3. Brewer’s Blackbird, Euphagus cyanocephalus
  4. Canyon Live Oak, Quercus chrysolepis
  5. Cattle, mixed herd, Bos Taurus
  6. Cloudy Cobblestone Lichen, Acarospora obnubila [dull brown on rocks, lumpy]
  7. Common Gold Cobblestone Lichen, Pleopsidium flavum [bright yellow]
  8. Common Goldspeck Lichen, Candelariella vitellina [bright yellow with rimmed apothecia on rocks]
  9. Copper Patch Lichen, Sporastatia testuinea [light brown thallus rimmed in black on rock, black apothecia]
  10. Cowpie Lichen, Diploschistes muscorum [light gray on rocks, similar to Crater Lichen but more pruinose]
  11. Crater Lichen, Diploschistes scruposus [gray/dark grey on rocks with dark apothecia]
  12. Cumberland Rock-Shield Lichen, Xanthoparmelia cumberlandia
  13. Ear-leaf Lichen, Normandina pulchella [green leaf-like on rocks]
  14. European Starling, Sturnus vulgaris
  15. Flame Firedot Lichen, Caloplaca ignea [orange on rock, elongated lobes and orange apothecia]
  16. Golden Shield Lichen, Xanthoria parietina
  17. Gray Ghost, Northern Harrier, Marsh Hawk, Circus hudsonius
  18. Green Shield Lichen, Flavoparmelia caperata
  19. Hairy Bittercress, Cardamine hirsuta
  20. Harvestman, Phalangium opilio
  21. Hidden Goldspeck Lichen, Candelariella aurella [small, scattered, yellow, on rocks]
  22. Hoary Lichen, Hoary Rosette, Physcia aipolia
  23. Hooded Rosette Lichen, Physcia adscendens [hairs/eyelashes on the tips of the lobes]
  24. Ink Lichen, Placynthium nigrum [pitch black, fine grained]
  25. Interior Live Oak, Quercus wislizeni
  26. Johnnytuck, Butter and Eggs, “Bananas and Cheese”, Triphysaria eriantha
  27. Medusa Head Rye, Taeniatherum caput-medusae
  28. Oregon Sunburst Lichen, Xanthomendoza oregana [yellow/orange thallus bearing granular soredia on the tips and/or underside; looks like leaves with grainy edges]
  29. Powdered Ruffle Lichen, Parmotrema arnoldi [gray, has soredia or eyelashes/hairs on the thallus, on trees]
  30. Red-Shouldered Hawk, Buteo lineatus
  31. Red-Tailed Hawk, Buteo jamaicensis
  32. Red-Winged Blackbird, Agelaius phoeniceus
  33. Rock Tripe, Emery Rock Tripe, Umbilicaria phaea
  34. Sagebrush Goldspeck Lichen, Candelariella rosulans [yellow, on rocks]
  35. Scattered Button Lichen, Buellia dispersa [gray/off white on rocks with black spots]
  36. Shrubby Sunburst Lichen Polycauliona candelaria
  37. Sidewalk Firedot Lichen, Xanthocarpia feracissima  [bright orange, on rocks]
  38. Song Sparrow, Melospiza melodia
  39. Stinging Nettle, California Nettle, Urtica dioica gracilis
  40. Turkey Vulture, Cathartes aura
  41. Western Meadowlark, Sturnella neglecta
  42. White Rock Posey, Rhizoplaca marginalis [light grey on rocks, some ruffle, with dark gray apothecia]
  43. White Tailed Kite, Elanus leucurus

An Owl and Some Otters, 02-20-20

Up at about 5:30 this morning after a fairly good night’s sleep.  I was out the door by 6:30 am to head out to Lake Solano Park with my friend and fellow naturalist Roxanne. Roxanne did all the driving for this trip (which she does a lot) and we stopped first at the Putah Creek Café for some breakfast.

When we were done with breakfast, we went on to Lake Solano Park, and before we even got to the gate we had a photo opportunity with a Great Blue Heron standing on the shore of the river. 

Great Blue Heron, Ardea Herodias

Once we got into the park and parked the car, our next sighting was of an otter swimming in the water (!). I had seen something moving under the surface and then the otter raised his head up to the surface to catch his breath.

We started walking along the campground side of the road and were happy to see that the Cliff Swallows are back now and building their mud nests under the bridge.

Mud nests created by Cliff Swallows, Petrochelidon pyrrhonota

We were surprised to see so many California Blackberry vines growing along the river. Usually, we see nothing but the invasive Himalayan Blackberry everywhere, so, seeing the native plants is a big deal. 

There were lots of Pipevine plants coming up all over the place, along with Manroot Vines, Mugwort, Chickweed, mistletoe, and Poison Oak.  All the new leaves and growth were nice to see. 

Little California Buckeye trees were coming up, too, and we even found one that was still attached to its chestnut. In the lawns, we found some Giraffe’s Head Henbit, stork’s bill,  and the tiny blue flowers of Bird’s-eye Speedwell.  The Miner’s Lettuce was also starting to get its flowers on it.

There were a couple of Cottonwood trees near the bank that were scarred by beaver teeth. I looked around for scat, but couldn’t see any. Their dropping are like balls of sawdust. 

At one spot, Roxanne found a web by an orb-weaver spider but couldn’t get the threads in the web to show up enough for a photograph. I handed her my little spritz bottle so she could mist the web, and it became much more visible. (An “old naturalist trick”.)

Roxanne spritzes a spider’s web with mist to bring out the details.

We saw a lot of Great Blue Herons and Bufflehead ducks in the water, some American Wigeons, Pied-Billed Grebes, and Canada Geese.  We also found a hybrid that was part Canada Goose and part Greater White-Fronted Goose. 

As we were walking back toward the bridge again, I noticed a male Phainopepla in a tree, eating bits off the mistletoe plant in a tree.  The bird came out a bit and posed for photos before flying off again. They’re such cool-looking birds.

A male Phainopepla, Phainopepla nitens

A little while later, when we were almost back to parking lot to put our jackets in it (because it was warming up so quickly outside), we stopped at a bench so I could rest a little bit.  I was just about to make a remark about the Great Blue Heron on the opposite bank when I saw a “black animal” on a green patch near the river.  At first, I thought it might be a cat, but then it “unwound” its body, and I realized it was another otter (!).  I was able to get video and photos of it as it worked its way down the bank, over some rocks and into the water.

CLICK HERE for the full album of photos.

After we tossed our jackets in the car, I showed Roxanne how we could drive to the other end of the park where the “owl tree” is.  I was stunned to see heavy truck after heavy truck along that road.  They’re ripping up all of the dead oaks and walnut trees along there and mulching them.  I was worried that the road was going to be completely blocked, but were able to make it through to the parking lot closest to the tree. 

The little Western Screech Owl hadn’t been therefor months, so we weren’t sure if it would be there today.  We had to check, though, and were very happy to see him napping in his tree.  We were able to get quite a few photos of him. 

Western Screech Owl, Megascops kennicottii

We then walked on down the bank to where we usually find the Giant Horsetail Ferns.  The new green non-reproductive parts of the ferns were just starting to come up, but we were able to find quite a few of the yellow spore-bearing parts of the plants – which to me are really more intriguing than the green parts.  The green parts do all the photosynthesis for the plant (which lives underground), while the yellow parts house the reproductive system. Sooooo interesting.

“Sexual” spore-producing part of the Giant Horsetail Fern, Equisetum telmateia

When we were heading back to the car again, I once again had to stop to rest, so Roxanne checked out the little fishing pond area. There wasn’t much water in it, so, I didn’t miss much, Roxanne said.

Heading back home, we stopped to get something cold to drink. We pulled our species lists together and got up to over 120 different species seen or heard today! It was such a fun and productive trip. All together, we were out for about 7½ hours.

Species List:

2019 Instructions for Form 8962

  1. Acorn Woodpecker, Melanerpes formicivorus
  2. Almond Tree, Prunus dulcis
  3. American Kestrel, Falco sparverius
  4. American Plantain, Plantago rugelii [large plantain with rounded leaves]
  5. American Wigeon, Anas Americana
  6. Arundo, Giant Reed, Arundo donax
  7. Audubon’s Warbler, Setophaga coronata auduboni
  8. Azolla, Water Fern, Azolla filiculoides
  9. Beaver, American, Beaver, Castor canadensis [signs only]
  10. Bedstraw, Velcro Grass, Cleavers, Galium aparine
  11. Bird’s-eye Speedwell, Veronica persica
  12. Black Phoebe, Sayornis nigricans
  13. Black Walnut Tree, Juglans nigra
  14. Blue Elderberry, Sambucus nigra cerulea
  15. Blue Oak, Quercus douglasii
  16. Bordered Plant Bug, Largus californicus
  17. Boxelder Tree, Acer negundo
  18. Brewer’s Blackbird, Euphagus cyanocephalus
  19. Broadleaf Cattail, Typha latifolia
  20. Bufflehead, Bucephala albeola
  21. California Blackberry, Trailing Blackberry, Rubus ursinus
  22. California Buckeye Chestnut Tree, Aesculus californica
  23. California Camouflage Lichen, Melanelixia californica [dark green with brown apothecia, on trees]
  24. California Manroot, Bigroot, Marah fabaceus
  25. California Mugwort, Artemisia douglasiana
  26. California Pipevine, Dutchman’s Pipe, Aristolochia californica
  27. California Poppy, Eschscholzia californica
  28. California Scrub Jay, Aphelocoma californica
  29. California Towhee, Melozone crissalis
  30. California Wild Rose, Rosa californica
  31. Canada Goose, Branta canadensis
  32. Capillary Thread-Moss, Rosulabryum capillare
  33. Cherry-Plum, Prunus cerasifera
  34. Chickweed, Stellaria media
  35. Cinder Lichen, Aspicilia cinereal [light gray on rocks, with or without small black dots]
  36. Cliff Swallow, Petrochelidon pyrrhonota
  37. Coast Live Oak, Quercus agrifolia
  38. Common Crow, Corvus brachyrhynchos
  39. Common Dandelion, Taraxacum officinale
  40. Common Goldspeck Lichen, Candelariella vitellina [bright yellow with rimmed apothecia on rocks]
  41. Common Groundsel , Senecio vulgaris
  42. Common Hedge Parsley, Torilis arvensis
  43. Common Orange Lichen, Xanthoria parietina [yellow-orange,on wood/trees]
  44. Common Stork’s-Bill, Erodium cicutarium
  45. Cottonwood, Fremont Cottonwood, Populus fremontii
  46. Crater Lichen, Diploschistes scruposus [gray/dark grey on rocks with dark apothecia]
  47. Crown Whitefly, Aleuroplatus coronata
  48. Cumberland Rock-Shield Lichen, Xanthoparmelia cumberlandia
  49. Dark-Eyed Junco (Oregon morph), Junco hyemalis
  50. Double-Crested Cormorant, Phalacrocorax auratus
  51. Eurasian Collared Dove, Streptopelia decaocto
  52. European Starling, Sturnus vulgaris
  53. Farinose Cartilage Lichen, Ramalina farinacea [like Oakmoss but very thin branches]
  54. Flat-Topped Honeydew Gall Wasp, Disholcaspis eldoradensis
  55. Frosted Rim Lichen, Lecanora caesiorrubella [light gray with light gray apothecia on wood]
  56. Fungus Gnat, Bradysia sp.
  57. Giant Horsetail Fern, Equisetum telmateia
  58. Giraffe’s Head Henbit, Henbit Deadnettle, Lamium amplexicaule
  59. Gold Dust Lichen, Chrysothrix candelaris
  60. Great Blue Heron, Ardea Herodias
  61. Great Egret, Ardea alba
  62. Green Shield Lichen, Flavoparmelia capera
  63. Green-winged Teal, Anas crecca
  64. Hairy Vetch, Winter Vetch, Vicia villosa ssp. villosa
  65. Himalayan Blackberry, Armenian Blackberry, Rubus armeniacus
  66. Hoary Lichen, Hoary Rosette, Physcia aipolia
  67. Hooded Rosette Lichen, Physcia adscendens [hairs/eyelashes on the tips of the lobes]
  68. Indian Peafowl, Pavo cristatus
  69. Interior Live Oak, Quercus wislizeni
  70. Interior Sandbar Willow, Salix interior
  71. Ivy-leaved Speedwell, Veronica hederifolia [has tiny white flowers]
  72. Lace Lichen, Ramalina menziesii
  73. Lodgepole Pine, Pinus contorta
  74. Long-Jawed Orb Weaver, Tetragnatha sp .
  75. Mallard duck, Anas platyrhynchos
  76. Miner’s Lettuce, Claytonia perfoliata
  77. Musky Stork’s Bill, Whitestem Filaree, Erodium moschatum
  78. Non-biting Midges, Family: Chironomidae
  79. Northern Flicker, Colaptes auratus
  80. Northern Mockingbird, Mimus polyglottos
  81. Nuttall’s Woodpecker, Picoides nuttallii
  82. Oak Apple, California Gall Wasp, Andricus quercuscalifornicus
  83. Oak Leaf-Roller Moth, Archips semiferanus
  84. Oak Titmouse, Baeolophus inornatus
  85. Oakmoss Lichen, Evernia prunastri
  86. Oyster Mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus
  87. Phainopepla, Phainopepla nitens
  88. Pied-Billed Grebe, Podilymbus podiceps
  89. Poison Oak, Pacific Poison Oak, Western Poison Oak, Toxicodendron diversilobum
  90. Ponderosa Pine, Pinus ponderosa
  91. Red-Shouldered Hawk, Buteo lineatus
  92. Red-Tailed Hawk, Buteo jamaicensis
  93. Red-Winged Blackbird, Agelaius phoeniceus
  94. River Otter, North American River Otter, Lontra canadensis
  95. Rock Shield Lichen, Xanthoparmelia conspersa
  96. Ruptured Twig Gall Wasp, Callirhytis perdens
  97. Scattered Button Lichen, Buellia dispersa [gray/off white on rocks with black spots]
  98. Shrubby Sunburst Lichen Polycauliona candelaria
  99. Sidewalk Firedot Lichen, Xanthocarpia feracissima  
  100. Snowy Egret, Egretta thula
  101. Song Sparrow, Melospiza melodia
  102. Split Gill Fungus, Schizophyllum commune
  103. Spotted Towhee, Pipilo maculatus
  104. Stereum, Stereum sp.
  105. Stonewall Rim Lichen, Lecona muralis [pale green/gray thallus with rose/tan apothecia gathered in the center; color can be quite variable]
  106. Strap Lichen, Western Strap Lichen, Ramalina leptocarpha
  107. Strawberry Tree, Arbutus unedo
  108. Streambank Springbeauty, Claytonia parviflora
  109. Striped Skunk, Mephitis mephitis [dead]
  110. Sunburst Lichen, Xanthoria elegans
  111. Tall Flatsedge,  Cyperus eragrostis
  112. Toyon, Heteromeles arbutifolia
  113. Tule, Common Tule, California Bulrush, Schoenoplectus acutus
  114. Turkey Vulture, Cathartes aura
  115. Two-Horned Gall Wasp, Dryocosmus dubiosus
  116. Valley Oak, Quercus lobata
  117. Velvety Tree Ant, Liometopum occidentale
  118. Western Bluebird, Sialia Mexicana
  119. Western Redbud, Cercis occidentalis
  120. Western Screech Owl, Megascops kennicottii
  121. Western Spotted Orbweaver Spider, Neoscona oaxacensis  [web]
  122. White Alder, Alnus rhombifolia
  123. White-Breasted Nuthatch, Sitta carolinensis
  124. Yellow-Billed Magpie, Pica nuttalli
  125. Yellow-legged Mud-dauber Wasp, Sceliphron caementarium [nest]

The Seasons are Changing, 02-18-20

I got up around 7:00 this morning and was out the door by about 7:30 to head to the Effie Yeaw Nature Preserve for my weekly volunteer trail walking gig.

I was feeling pretty strong today; the pain in my left lower abdomen was very minor and seemed to be “referred” into my groin, so I didn’t have any trouble walking.  And the weather was lovely, too.

CLICK HERE for the album of photos.

As I drove down California Street, I could see a flock of female Wile Turkeys in the street, and slowed down for them.  I was sad to see that someone else, on the other side of the road, had not stopped and had struck one of the hens.  The other hens were gathering around the dead one in what I presume was a “mourning group”. Among them was the leucitic hen I’ve seen at Effie Yeaw on and off for a few years. 

I debated with myself as to whether I should stop and check on the dead one, to make doubly sure it was dead. But I decided against that.  If the downed hen, wasn’t dead, there wasn’t a lot I could do for her.  I didn’t have a blanket to wrap her in or a crate to put her in, and that early in the morning, I didn’t know of a rescue place that would be open… So, sadly, I left her where she was.

On the first part of the trail, I came across a pair of American Kestrels, male and females, high in a tree. They were pretty far away but the light on them was good, so I took a few photos. Because of the distance, the pictures aren’t the best but you can clearly see the two birds and their markings, so I was pleased with that.

A pair of American Kestrel, Falco sparverius. That’s the female on the top of the branch and the male beneath her

Later, I found a small herd of bucks,2-, 3- and 4-pointers, and two that had just lost their antlers.  So, that HAS come earlier this year. It’s because of the warm weather, I’m sure.

According to the Sacramento Bee, Sacramento is heading for the first February on record without rain.  Not good news.  The vernal pools all over the region are dry, or losing the water they got in January due to evaporation, which means the populations of rare and specialized insects and animals they support either have no way of emerging or are dying in their ever-shrinking habitats.  But some people still insist that Climate Change doesn’t exist… It’s just sad.

Further along the trail, I found an Eastern Fox Squirrel grooming himself in a tree, and watched the Acorn Woodpeckers moving their acorns around in their granary trees. Oh, and the bees have left the bee tree, it seems.  No sign of even a single one of them…

Acorn Woodpecker, Melanerpes formicivorus

And then there was the guy with a drone. I could hear this ridiculously loud buzzing sound that seemed to be coming from everywhere around me, and I thought maybe the preserve landscape crews were out with some kind of weird weed-whacker.  Then I saw the drone, a little black job that a bearded guy had sneaked in inside his backpack. As soon a he saw me, he few the thing back to him and walked off with it — which made me conclude that he was flying it illegally and he knew it. 

There are a lot of laws and restrictions about flying drones in California, and Sacramento County has added their own layer of laws and permit requirements. To me, just having that noisy thing inside a designated wildlife preserve was enough to piss me off.  He was scaring the deer and some of the birds.  I saw him off-trail in another part of the preserve, and headed over to him to tell him to get back onto the trail surfaces… but he’d run off and disappeared before I reached him.

I walked for about 3 hours before heading out.

When I went into the nature center after my walk to log my hours, I met two new trail walkers who were just going out for the day.  I’m glad the trails are getting a lot of coverage.

I’d gotten emails from the nature center this morning letting everyone know that Sophia the Saw-Whet Owl at Effie Yeaw had died over the weekend. She actually lived about 10 years longer than she was expected to, so she was a grand old lady.  I saw her every time I went into the nature center to log my volunteer hours, and Melissa and I went to a “painting party” where we painted portraits of her and got to see he face-to-beak. It was sad to see her empty enclosure inside the center today.

RIP, Sophia!

As I was leaving the preserve, I saw two unattended children, a boy and his younger sister, around the small demonstration pool.  First, they set off to chase the turkeys, and I had to ask them to stop.  Then they went over to the pond and tried to climb into it to harass the pair of Mallards that was resting in it.  I went up to the pond, made sure they could see me taking photos of them, and then told them to “please stay out of the water and leave the ducks alone”.  The kids gave me dirty looks, and the boy tried pushing his sister into the water.  She shrugged him off and then both of them stopped their horrid behavior the moment their mother finally walked in from the parking lot. *Sigh*

Species List:

  1. Acorn Woodpecker, Melanerpes formicivorus
  2. Almond Tree, Prunus dulcis
  3. American Kestrel, Falco sparverius
  4. Audubon’s Warbler, Setophaga coronata auduboni
  5. Bark Rim Lichen, Lecanora chlarotera [looks like Whitewash Lichen but has apothecia]
  6. Black Phoebe, Sayornis nigricans
  7. Blue Elderberry, Sambucus nigra cerulea
  8. Blue Oak, Quercus douglasii
  9. California Ground Squirrel, Otospermophilus beecheyi
  10. California Mugwort, Artemisia douglasiana
  11. California Scrub Jay, Aphelocoma californica
  12. Canada Goose, Branta canadensis [fly overs]
  13. Columbian Black-Tailed Deer, Odocoileus hemionus columbianus
  14. Common Crow, Corvus brachyrhynchos [heard]
  15. Common Orange Lichen, Xanthoria parietina
  16. Cooper’s Hawk, Acipiter cooperii [heard]
  17. Coyote Brush Bud Gall midge, Rhopalomyia californica
  18. Coyote Brush, Baccharis pilularis
  19. Cranefly, Mosquito Hawk, Tipula sp.
  20. Eastern Fox Squirrel, Sciurus niger
  21. European Starling, Sturnus vulgaris
  22. Farinose Cartilage Lichen, Ramalina farinacea [like Oakmoss but very thin branches]
  23. Fluffy Dust Lichen, Pacific Fluffy Dust Lichen, Lepraria pacifica
  24. Fremont’s Cottonwood, Populus fremontii
  25. Gold Dust Lichen, Chrysothrix candelaris
  26. Golden Shield Lichen, Xanthoria parietina
  27. Green Shield Lichen, Flavoparmelia caperata
  28. Green Trichoderma Mold, Trichoderma viride
  29. Himalayan Blackberry, Rubus armeniacus
  30. Hoary Lichen, Hoary Rosette, Physcia aipolia
  31. Hooded Rosette Lichen, Physcia adscendens [hairs/eyelashes on the tips of the lobes]
  32. Interior Live Oak, Quercus wislizeni
  33. Live Oak Gall Wasp, 1st Generation, Callirhytis quercuspomiformis
  34. Mallard duck, Anas platyrhynchos
  35. Nuttall’s Woodpecker, Picoides nuttallii [heard several]
  36. Oak Titmouse, Baeolophus inornatus
  37. Pumpkin Gall Wasp, Dryocosmus minusculus
  38. Red-Shouldered Hawk, Buteo lineatus
  39. Rio Grande Wild Turkey, Meleagris gallopavo intermedia
  40. Shield Lichen, Parmelia squarrosa [gray, foliose, on trees, soredia and very branched eyelashes (isidia) on the tips]
  41. Shrubby Sunburst Lichen Polycauliona candelaria
  42. Spotted Towhee, Pipilo maculatus
  43. Strap Lichen, Western Strap Lichen, Ramalina leptocarpha
  44. Turkey Tail Fungus, Trametes versicolor
  45. Turkey Vulture, Cathartes aura
  46. Valley Oak, Quercus lobata
  47. Western Fence Lizard, Blue Belly, Sceloporus occidentalis
  48. Western Redbud, Cercis occidentalis
  49. White-Breasted Nuthatch, Sitta carolinensis

Two Destinations in One Day, 02-17-20

I got up around 7:30 this morning, and after feeding the dog his breakfast, I headed out to the Nimbus Fish Hatchery for a walk.  It was bright and sunny there when I got there, about 48°, but it warmed up quickly until I was just in my shirtsleeves.

At the hatchery, the runs were filled with trout and baby salmon, and the top of the fish ladder had several dozen huge Steelhead and Coho Salmon resting in the water.  The salmon get pretty banged up on their way back to their spawning waters from the ocean, and one of them looked like all of the skin and meat had been torn off its head some there was nothing but skeleton showing.  Wow. Brutal.

Coho Salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch, with most of its facial skin and flesh lost due to its brutal fight back to fresh water from the ocean

I photographed some of the lichen on the rocks and trees, including some black granular-looking lichen I wasn’t able to ID in the field.  More research. Fun! 

Black Grain-Spored Lichen, Sarcogyne hypophaea

And I even came across a teneral damselfly. It’s way too early for those little guys to be out.

In the river, I saw lots of Common Mergansers and Common Goldeneye ducks swimming in groups and fishing.  They found an outlet in the side of the river where some of the sluice comes out of the hatchery.  I saw some of them catch tiny fish and gobble them up.

A male Common Merganser, Mergus merganser [top] and a male Common Goldeneye, Bucephala clangula [bottom]

CLICK HERE for the full album of photos.

There were gulls everywhere – but it’s difficult for me to ID them unless I can get some clear photos of them.  They’re all white and gray, so, to identify one species from the other, I have to look at their eyes and the color of their legs and feet… There were lots of cormorants out there, too, including a few that have their double-crests in; they look like big hairy eyebrows above each eye.

I walked along the river there for about 2 hours and then drove across the street to the Aquatic Center to see what was over there. No real access to the river that I could see. So, that was a little bit of a waste of time. Then I drove down the highway to the American River Bend Park, and walked around the picnic area for another hour or so before heading back home.

California Ground Squirrel, Otospermophilus beecheyi

At the park, I saw deer, Wild Turkeys and California Ground Squirrels, and also got some more lichen photos. It was a good outing!

Species List:

  1. Anna’s Hummingbird, Calypte anna
  2. Bark Rim Lichen, Lecanora chlarotera [looks like Whitewash Lichen but has apothecia]
  3. Bewick’s Wren, Thryomanes bewickii
  4. Black Grain-Spored Lichen, Sarcogyne hypophaea
  5. Black Phoebe, Sayornis nigricans
  6. Brewer’s Blackbird, Euphagus cyanocephalus
  7. California Ground Squirrel, Otospermophilus beecheyi
  8. Canada Goose, Branta canadensis
  9. Coffeeberry, California Buckthorn, Frangula californica
  10. Coho Salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch
  11. Columbian Black-Tailed Deer, Odocoileus hemionus columbianus
  12. Common Goldeneye, Bucephala clangula
  13. Common Merganser, Mergus merganser
  14. Common Sunburst Lichen, Xanthoria parietina
  15. Coyote Brush, Baccharis pilularis
  16. Crabseye Lichen, Ochrolechia subpallescens [creamy colored lichen with white-rimmed pale orange/pink apothecia]
  17. Damselfly, in its “teneral” state; unable to fully identify
  18. Double-Crested Cormorant, Phalacrocorax auratus
  19. Eastern Fox Squirrel, Sciurus niger
  20. European Starling, Sturnus vulgaris
  21. False Turkey Tail fungus, Stereum complicatum
  22. Fennel, Sweet Fennel, Foeniculum vulgare
  23. Fig, Common Fig, Ficus carica
  24. Gold Dust Lichen, Chrysothrix candelaris
  25. Golden Crowned Sparrow, Zonotrichia atricapilla
  26. Great Blue Heron, Ardea Herodias
  27. Great Egret, Ardea alba
  28. Green Shield Lichen, Flavoparmelia caperata
  29. Greylag Goose, Anser anser
  30. Hairy Vetch, Winter Vetch, Vicia villosa ssp. villosa
  31. Himalayan Blackberry, Rubus armeniacus
  32. Hoary Lichen, Hoary Rosette, Physcia aipolia
  33. Hooded Rosette Lichen, Physcia adscendens
  34. House Finch, Haemorhous mexicanus
  35. House Sparrow, Passer domesticus
  36. Lesser Goldfinch, Spinus psaltria
  37. Mallard duck, Anas platyrhynchos
  38. Mesh Web Spider, Dictyna sp.
  39. Mistletoe, American Mistletoe, Big Leaf Mistletoe, Phoradendron leucarpum
  40. Mourning Dove, Zenaida macroura
  41. Pastel Comma Lichen, Arthonia pruinata
  42. Pin-cushion Sunburst Lichen, Polycauliona polycarpa
  43. Pointleaf Manzanita, Arctostaphylos pungens
  44. Rainbow Trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss
  45. Red-Shouldered Hawk, Buteo lineatus
  46. Ring-Billed Gull, Larus delawarensis [ black ring, light eye, yellow legs]
  47. Rio Grande Wild Turkey, Meleagris gallopavo intermedia
  48. Rock Shield Lichen, Xanthoparmelia conspersa
  49. Ruby-Crowned Kinglet, Regulus calendula
  50. Rusty Tussock Moth, Orgyia antiqua
  51. Sandbar Willow, Salix exigua var. hindsiana
  52. Shrubby Sunburst Lichen Polycauliona candelaria
  53. Steelhead, anadromous form of Oncorhynchus mykiss
  54. Stem Rust Fungus, Puccinia evadens [attacks Coyote Brush]
  55. Turkey Vulture, Cathartes aura
  56. Western Carpenter Ant, Camponotus modoc
  57. Western Gull, Larus occidentalis
  58. White-Breasted Nuthatch, Sitta carolinensis

Travels of a Certified California Naturalist