Category Archives: photography

At the Cemetery, 02-13-20

Up at 6:00 am and out the door by about 6:45 to get to the Sacramento Historic City Cemetery for a walk with my friend and fellow naturalist Roxanne.  It was mostly sunny and relatively warm outside.  I just had to wear my light jacket.

We’d gone there to see if we could find lichen on the gravestones, fence lines and monuments, and got to see quite a few.  However, Some of the best-looking specimens of lichen were high upon the surface of the statues and the roofs of some of the mausoleums where we couldn’t reach them.

While we were there, we actually saw more birds than I thought we might, including lots of crows, Audubon’s Warblers, and Lesser Goldfinches.  We also heard and saw a few Cooper’s Hawks. 

Cooper’s Hawk, Accipiter cooperii

Our sort of totem bird, a Black Phoebe, posed for us on top of a grave marker, and we saw a juvenile male Anna’s Hummingbird.  He and some of the finches were bathing in and drinking from a fountain.

Anna’s Hummingbird, Calypte anna

CLICK HERE for the full album of photos.

Roxanne had never been there before, and I was hoping the perennial and native plants gardens would be showing off a bit for her.  It was very disappointing then to find that the gardens had been stripped down until they were almost bare, and the plots covered with large ugly wood chips.

We did see a few scattered flowers like Bearded Irises and some Cream Narcissi and Common Daffodils.  There were also some springtime plants growing up between the plots like Giraffe’s Head Henbit, California Poppies, violets, Common Sow-Thistle and Shepherd’s-Purse. I’m hoping that in another month or so, the place will be filled with more flowers and color.

The most interesting thing we found was some red dusty-looking growth on one of the trees. I couldn’t tell if it was a fungus or a lichen, so I researched it after I got home. At first I thought it might be Christmas Lichen, but the form was wrong (even in the early stages), so I kept looking. I think what we found is a plant pathogen called Red Phanerochaete pathogen, Phanerochaete sanguinea. The color was really remarkable.

Red Phanerochaete pathogen, Phanerochaete sanguinea

We only walked for about 2½ hours because my left hip and groin area were aching.  (I think Wilson might be coming back.) 

Species List:

  1. ?? Slime mold, too far gone to spore to correctly identify to genus
  2. Anna’s Hummingbird, Calypte anna
  3. Audubon’s Warbler, Setophaga coronata auduboni
  4. Bearded Iris, Iris x Germanica
  5. Black Phoebe, Sayornis nigricans
  6. Cabbage, Brassica oleracea
  7. California Poppy, Eschscholzia californica
  8. California Scrub Jay, Aphelocoma californica
  9. Cedar Waxwing, Bombycilla cedrorum
  10. Chinese Arborvitae, Platycladus orientalis [a kind of ornamental cypress]
  11. Chinese Fringe Flower, Loropetalum chinense
  12. Common Crow, Corvus brachyrhynchos
  13. Common Daffoldil, Narcissus pseudonarcissus
  14. Common Goldspeck Lichen, Candelariella vitellina
  15. Common Sow-Thistle, Sonchus oleraceus
  16. Common Stork’s-Bill, Erodium cicutarium
  17. Cooper’s Hawk, Accipiter cooperii
  18. Cream Narcissus, Narcissus tazetta
  19. Cumberland Rock-Shield Lichen, Xanthoparmelia cumberlandia
  20. Dark-Eyed Junco, Junco hyemalis
  21. Eastern Fox Squirrel, Sciurus niger
  22. Giraffe’s Head Henbit, Henbit Deadnettle, Lamium amplexicaule
  23. Gold Dust Lichen, Chrysothrix candelaris
  24. Hoary Cobblestone Lichen, Acaraspora strigata [light gray with dark grey apothecia on rocks]
  25. House Finch, Haemorhous mexicanus
  26. Hoverfly, Long-tailed Aphideater, Eupeodes fumipennis
  27. Ink Lichen, Placynthium nigrum
  28. Italian Cypress, Cupressus sempervirens
  29. Jacaranda, Blue Jacaranda Tree, Jacaranda mimosifolia
  30. Japanese Camellia, Camellia japonica
  31. Lesser Goldfinch, Spinus psaltria
  32. Mexican Bush Sage, Salvia leucantha [purple with white sox]
  33. Nightshade, Solanum sp.
  34. Northern Mockingbird, Mimus polyglottos
  35. Orange, Sweet Orange, Cultivated Orange, Citrus X sinensis
  36. Oregon Sunburst Lichen, Xanthomendoza oregana [on wood, yellow/orange thallus bearing granular soredia on the tips and/or underside; looks like leaves with grainy edges]
  37. Ponderosa Pine, Pinus ponderosa
  38. Pyracantha, Pyracantha coccinea
  39. Red Cluster Bottlebrush Tree,  Callistemon sp.
  40. Red Phanerochaete pathogen, Phanerochaete sanguinea [pathogen, red dusty-looking fungi on trees]
  41. Redflower Buckwheat, Eriogonum grande
  42. Scattered Button Lichen, Buellia dispersa [light gray on rocks with black spots]
  43. Seven-Spot Ladybeetle, Coccinella septempunctata
  44. Shepherd’s-Purse, Capsella bursa-pastoris
  45. Sidewalk Firedot Lichen, Xanthocarpia feracissima
  46. Silver Ragwort, Jacobaea maritima [silvery leaves, yellow flowers]
  47. Southern Magnolia, Magnolia grandiflora
  48. Stonewall Rim Lichen, Lecona muralis
  49. Summer Snowflake, Leucojum aestivum  [looks like a white lily of the valley with green dots on tips]
  50. Violet, Viola sp.
  51. Weeping Cypress, Cupressus cashmeriana

The Two-Horned Galls Seem Early, 02-12-20

I got up a bit after 7:00 this morning and headed out to the Effie Yeaw Nature Preserve for my weekly volunteer trail walking gig there. It was about 47° when I got there and about 62° when I left, so I only needed to wear my light jacket (and actually took that off about halfway through my walk). I got to the preserve right around 8:00 am.

The first thing I noticed was that I didn’t the pair of Red-Shouldered Hawks at the nest they were building in a tree at the head of the main trail.  I don’t know if I just missed them, or if they’ve chosen somewhere else to nest… I saw and heard Red-Shouldered Hawks all over the preserve today, so they’re out there.

Red-Shouldered Hawk, Buteo lineatus

I also heard a lot of male California Quails “chi-ca-going” at each other, so I tried to track them down.  One sounded like it was near the riverside but I couldn’t see it. Another was calling from the scraggly undercover near an oak tree ahead of me on the trail, so I waited for him. He eventually came out with one female, and they ran up the trail then into the rocks by the river… so I got butt-shots of them, but nothing face forward. Still, I got hear and see them which is always a treat. They’re such funny, pretty little birds with their dingle-ball headgear.

CLICK HERE for the album of photos.

I also watched some Common Mergansers, a male and a female, fishing in the river with wither faces in the water.

I got to see quite a few deer – at one point, I was able to count 21 of them disbursed on either side of the trail.  Most of them were in places where they were backlit by the rising sun, so… not as many good photos as I was hoping for. Most of the deer are shedding their winter coats and look a bit “choppy” all over.

Columbian Black-Tailed Deer, Odocoileus hemionus columbianus,doe

Rachael, the volunteer coordinator at the preserve, told me the bucks were losing their antlers already.  But that seemed early to me (they can usually keep them through March); and I’ve seen lots of bucks who still have them – even today . Deborah Dash, one of my naturalist class graduates, recently posted a photo from one of her walks that looks like a male that just shed his antlers… so, I don’t know. It still seems early to me.

Everything in Nature is screwed up by Climate Change, though, and the fact that we’ve had some days in the 70’s here in February is symptomatic of that, I think.

I was also able to find maybe a dozen of the galls of the Two-Horned Gall Wasp on the Live Oak trees, and those seemed to be too early, too.  I hope the tiny larvae inside the galls don’t freeze when the temperature drops down to “normal” again.

Gall of the Two-Horned Gall Wasp and a larvae of the Crown Whitefly

As I walked along, I could hear the members of bachelor groups of Wild Turkeys fighting with one another. They have to set the hierarchy in place before the mating season starts, and fights can get pretty aggressive. The fights I heard were over before I got to the birds, so I missed those, but I was still able to get some photos of some of the individual males.

I also saw some Jackrabbits today.  Seems like “forever” since I’ve seen them. They’re the heralds of Spring to me.

Black-Tailed Jackrabbit, Lepus californicus

I walked for about 3 ½ hours and then headed home.

Species List:

  1. Acorn Woodpecker, Melanerpes formicivorus
  2. Bark Rim Lichen, Lecanora chlarotera [looks like Whitewash Lichen but has apothecia]
  3. Bewick’s Wren, Thryomanes bewickii
  4. Bird Hoverfly, Eupeodes volucris
  5. Black Jelly Roll fungus, Exidia glandulosa
  6. Black-Tailed Jackrabbit, Lepus californicus
  7. California Ground Squirrel, Otospermophilus beecheyi
  8. California Mugwort, Artemisia douglasiana
  9. California Quail, Callipepla californica
  10. California Scrub Jay, Aphelocoma californica
  11. California Towhee, Melozone crissalis
  12. Columbian Black-Tailed Deer, Odocoileus hemionus columbianus
  13. Dry Rock Pimple, Staurothele areolata
  14. Common Merganser, Mergus merganser
  15. Cream Narcissus, Narcissus tazetta
  16. Crown Whitefly, Aleuroplatus coronata
  17. Cumberland Rock-Shield Lichen, Xanthoparmelia cumberlandia
  18. Eastern Fox Squirrel, Sciurus niger
  19. Farinose Cartilage Lichen,  Ramalina farinacea [like Oakmoss but very thin branches]
  20. Gold Dust Lichen, Chrysothrix candelaris
  21. Golden Crowned Sparrow, Zonotrichia atricapilla
  22. Golden Shield Lichen, Xanthoria parietina
  23. Great Horned Owl, Bubo virginianus
  24. Green Shield Lichen, Flavoparmelia caperata
  25. Hoary Lichen, Hoary Rosette, Physcia aipolia
  26. Ink Lichen, Placynthium nigrum [pitch black, fine grained]
  27. Interior Live Oak, Quercus wislizeni
  28. Jack-o-Lantern, Western Jack-o-Lantern, Omphalotus olivascens
  29. Mallard duck, Anas platyrhynchos
  30. Miniature Lupine, Lupinus bicolor
  31. Mistletoe, American Mistletoe, Big Leaf Mistletoe, Phoradendron leucarpum
  32. Mourning Dove, Zenaida macroura
  33. Netted Crust Fungus, Byssomerulius corium
  34. Oakmoss Lichen, Evernia prunastri
  35. Olive Tree, Olea europaea
  36. Periwinkle, Vinca major
  37. Pin-cushion Sunburst Lichen, Polycauliona polycarpa
  38. Red-Shouldered Hawk, Buteo lineatus
  39. Rio Grande Wild Turkey, Meleagris gallopavo intermedia
  40. Shrubby Sunburst Lichen Polycauliona Candelaria
  41. Slime Mold,  Spotted Trichia Slime Mold, Trichia botrytis
  42. Soap Plant, Wavy Leafed Soaproot, Chlorogalum pomeridianum
  43. Spotted Towhee, Pipilo maculatus
  44. Stonewall Rim Lichen, Lecona muralis
  45. Strap Lichen, Western Strap Lichen, Ramalina leptocarpha
  46. Sunburst Lichen, Xanthoria elegans
  47. Two-Horned Gall Wasp, Dryocosmus dubiosus 
  48. Valley Oak, Quercus lobata
  49. White-Crowned Sparrow, Zonotrichia leucophrys

Spring is Starting to Awaken, 02-10-20

The winds died down a bit today, so I went out to the American River Bend Park to look for lichens.  It was 45° when I got to the river, and 64° when I got back home.

I had gone looking for lichens so I could get more detailed photos of them. I saw about 20 different species, including some on the Buckeye Trees. The mature Buckeye trees are just starting to get their new leaves, and baby Buckeye trees seems to be sprouting up allover the place.

CLICK HERE for the full album of photos.

I came across a California Pipevine plant that was overloaded with flowers.  Each flower looks like a chubby Calibash pipe, and there were literally hundred of flowers on just this one plant. 

The flowers are pollinated by fungus gnats (Mycetophiladea) which are attracted by the scent. The gnats enter the “mouth” on the top of the flower, and bang around inside the flower’s belly transferring pollen to the receptive female stigma. I found one of the flowers with gnats inside of it (and one at the mouth), and held it up to the sunlight to see their shadows flitting and bumping around.

The other cool thing of the walk, for me, was coming across a herd of about six Columbian Black-Tailed Deer, all bucks, all still in their antlers.  One of them had antlers that were almost taller than his legs were long.  He was very impressive.

Columbian Black-Tailed Deer, Odocoileus hemionus columbianus

I walked for about 3 hours and then headed back home.

Species List:

  1. Bark Rim Lichen, Lecanora chlarotera [looks like Whitewash Lichen but has apothecia]
  2. Bewick’s Wren, Thryomanes bewickii
  3. Blessed Milk Thistle, Silybum marianum
  4. Blue Elderberry, Sambucus nigra cerulea
  5. Boreal Button Lichen, Buellia disciformis [pale gray to bluish with black apothecia on wood]
  6. Brown-Eyed Shingle Lichen, Pannaria rubiginosa [on trees]
  7. California Buckeye Chestnut, Aesculus californica
  8. California Pipevine, Dutchman’s Pipe, Aristolochia californica
  9. Columbian Black-Tailed Deer, Odocoileus hemionus columbianus
  10. Creeping Moss, Conardia compacta
  11. Crescent Frost Lichen, Physconia perisidiosa [green or gray green on trees/wood]
  12. Dryad’s Saddle, Hawk’s Wing, Polyporus squamosus
  13. Farinose Cartilage Lichen,  Ramalina farinacea
  14. Frosted Rim Lichen, Lecanora caesiorrubella [light gray with light gray apothecia on wood]
  15. Common Sunburst Lichen, Xanthoria parietina [yellow-orange, on wood/trees]   
  16. Giraffe’s Spots Fungus, Peniophora albobadia                                                          
  17. Gold Dust Lichen, Chrysothrix candelaris
  18. Golden Shield Lichen, Xanthoria parietina
  19. Gouty Stem Gall Wasp, Callirhytis quercussuttoni
  20. Green Shield Lichen, Flavoparmelia caperata
  21. Hoary Lichen, Hoary Rosette, Physcia aipolia
  22. Hooded Rosette Lichen, Physcia adscendens [hairs/eyelashes on the tips of the lobes]
  23. Hooded Sunburst Lichen, Xanthomendoza fallax [leafy, yellow-orange, on trees]
  24. Ink Lichen, Placynthium nigrum [pitch black, fine grained]
  25. Lace Lichen, Ramalina menziesii
  26. Oakmoss Lichen, Evernia prunastri
  27. Pin-cushion Sunburst Lichen, Polycauliona polycarpa
  28. Powdered Ruffle Lichen, Parmotrema arnoldi [gray, has soredia or eyelashes/hairs on the thallus, on trees]
  29. Rio Grande Wild Turkey, Meleagris gallopavo intermedia
  30. Rusty Bog Moss, Sphagnum fuscum [reddish-brown slender stalks, on trees]           
  31. Shrubby Sunburst Lichen, Polycauliona Candelaria
  32. Strap Lichen, Western Strap Lichen, Ramalina leptocarpha
  33. Toothed Crust Fungus, Basidioradulum sp.
  34. Turkey Tail Fungus, Trametes versicolor
  35. Velvety Tree Ant, Liometopum occidentale
  36. Western Shield Lichen, Parmelia hygrophila [blue-gray, foliose, dull insidia on leaves]
  37. White Horehound, Marrubium vulgare

Napa Trip Day Two, 02-05-20

Once we got the car loaded, my friend Roxanne and I were off again back toward Sacramento.  [[ CLICK HERE for the write up on Day One.]]

We took Highway 128 again and stopped three times along the way to look at the lace lichen on the trees and walk a little bit along Putah Creek.  At the first stop, where we were looking at the lichen, Roxanne realized that under the leaf litter, all over the area, was a huge crop of Sulphur Tuft mushrooms.  The mycelial web underground that supported them must have been huge!

Then we stopped briefly at the Monticello Dam and got a look at the Glory Hole. Water wasn’t flowing into it, but it was nice to see Lake Berryessa so full just the same.  We saw quite a few Robins there and some midges lighting along the rock retaining wall.  From a geological standpoint, the rock formations all around that area are quite impressive.  Lots of layers, all tipped up onto their side by plate tectonics.

“…Most of Northern California’s bedrock is part of just three large bodies: the granite of the Sierra, the metamorphic rocks of the Coast Range, and the sedimentary rocks of the Central Valley. All three are parts of one entity: a former subduction zone. Picture the Pacific seafloor plate being carried eastward against the North American continental plate and plunging underneath it—subduction…” READ MORE HERE.

Male midge. (The males have fluffy antennae)

CLICK HERE for the full album of photos.

At the third stop, along Putah Creek at one of the fishing turnoffs, we were “harassed” by a Mourning Cloak butterfly that at first seemed to want to avoid us, but then followed us all over the place and landed in conspicuous sots where we were able to get a lot of photos of it. 

And we saw our first Pipevine of the season in full bloom. The pipevine gets its flowers first and then leave follow. Each blossom is like a fat Calabash pipe. Here’s an interesting article on the plant.

California Pipevine, Dutchman’s Pipe, Aristolochia californica

We actually have an endemic subspecies of Pipevine Swallowtail butterfly in Sacramento County that would go extinct in just one season if the pipevine disappeared.     

The Mourning Cloaks are interesting, too, in that they estivate (like hibernation but in the hotter months) over the late summer, wake up in the fall and winter to feed, and then mate in the spring.  Some of them migrate; some don’t. Females lay their eggs all the way around the stems of willows, cottonwood trees, and other host plants, and when the babies emerge, they form a communal web around themselves and feed together until they’re bigger and stronger and able to go off on their own. In their butterfly stage, they don’t like nectar and feed instead on tree sap and rotting fruits and berries.  The caterpillars are black with black spikes and a row of bright red spots down the back.

The big deal to me at this stop was the number of different lichens on the boulders there. I found Stonewall Rim, Ink Lichen, several different kinds of Cobblestone lichen, Tan Nipple Lichen, Sidewalk Firedot Lichen and others. They were all relatively small (in comparison to the substrate) but really showed off under the macro attachment on my cellphone.

When we got into Winters, we stopped briefly for some extra coffee, and then continued on to Sacramento. I got to the house right around 2:00 pm. 

Species List from Both Days:

  1. Acorn Woodpecker, Melanerpes formicivorus
  2. American Robin, Turdus migratorius
  3. Arundo, Giant Reed, Arundo donax
  4. Bay Laurel Tree, Laurus nobilis
  5. Beaded Tube Lichen, Hypogymnia apinnata
  6. Big-headed Ground Beetle, Scarites subterraneus [black, shiny, large mandibles] ??
  7. Black Cobweb Spider, Steatoda capensis
  8. Black Jelly Roll fungus, Exidia glandulosa
  9. Brewer’s Blackbird, Euphagus cyanocephalus
  10. Bright Cobblestone Lichen, Acarospora socialis [bright yellow, on rocks]
  11. Bufflehead Duck, Bucephala albeola
  12. California Black Oak, Quercus kelloggii
  13. California Pipevine, Dutchman’s Pipe, Aristolochia californica
  14. California Scrub Jay, Aphelocoma californica
  15. California Slender Salamander, Batrachoseps attenuates
  16. Canada Goose, Branta canadensis
  17. Candlesnuff Fungus, Carbon Antlers, Xylaria hypoxylon [upright, branched, white with a layer of spores; spores release at a touch]
  18. Canyon Live Oak, Quercus chrysolepis
  19. Chamise, Adenostoma fasciculatum
  20. Cinder Lichen, Aspicilia cinerea
  21. Coastal Woodfern, Dryopteris arguta [pointed leaves, two rows of spore sites]
  22. Columbian Black-Tailed Deer, Odocoileus hemionus columbianus
  23. Common Crow, Corvus brachyrhynchos
  24. Common Gold Cobblestone Lichen, Pleopsidium flavum [bright yellow]
  25. Common Gray Disk Fungus, Mollisia olivascens
  26. Common Jelly Spot fungus, Dacrymyces stillatus
  27. Common Merganser, Mergus merganser
  28. Conifer Mazegill, Gloeophyllum sepiarium
  29. Cowboys Handkerchief, Waxy Cap Mushroom, Hygrophorus eburneus
  30. Coyote Brush, Baccharis pilularis
  31. Crabseye Lichen, Ochrolechia subpallescens [creamy colored lichen with white-rimmed pale orange/pink apothecia on trees]
  32. Crampball Fungus, Daldinia concentrica
  33. Dark-Winged Fungus Gnat, Bradysia sp.
  34. Dendroalsia Moss, Dendroalsia abietina [long curling moss on trees]
  35. Double-Crested Cormorant, Phalacrocorax auratus
  36. Douglas Fir Tree, Pseudotsuga menziesii
  37. Dusky Tile Lichen, Lecidea Lichen, Lecidea fuscoatra  [black rimmed apothecia on rocks]
  38. Ear-leaf Lichen, Normandina pulchella [green leaf-like on rocks]
  39. Eastern Fox Squirrel, Sciurus niger
  40. Farinose Cartilage Lichen,  Ramalina farinacea [like Oakmoss but very thin branches]
  41. Fishbone Beard Lichen, Usnea filipendula [hairy eyeballs]
  42. Fluffy Dust Lichen, Pacific Fluffy Dust Lichen, Lepraria pacifica
  43. Fremont’s Cottonwood, Populus fremontii
  44. Fringed Wrinkle Lichen, Tuckermanopsis americana [pale green, brown fringes, on trees]
  45. Globular Springtail, Ptenothrix marmorata 
  46. Goldback Fern, Pentagramma triangularis
  47. Gray lungwort, Lobaria hallii  [gray to green, with soredia on surface]
  48. Gray Pine, Pinus sabiniana
  49. Great Blue Heron, Ardea Herodias
  50. Great Egret, Ardea alba
  51. Green Shield Lichen, Flavoparmelia caperata
  52. Green Trichoderma MoldTrichoderma viride 
  53. Herre’s Ragged Lichen, Platismatia herrei
  54. Hidden Goldspeck Lichen, Candelariella aurella [small, scattered, yellow, on rocks]
  55. House Finch, Haemorhous mexicanus
  56. Ink Lichen, Placynthium nigrum [pitch black, fine grained]
  57. Interior Live Oak, Quercus wislizeni
  58. Lace Lichen, Ramalina menziesii
  59. Lipstick Powderhorn, Cladonia macilenta
  60. Lung Lichen, Lobaria anthraspis
  61. Mealy Pixie Cup, Cladonia chlorophaea
  62. Milky Cap, Hemimycena hirsute [tiny white mushrooms with distant gills]
  63. Mistletoe, American Mistletoe, Big Leaf Mistletoe, Phoradendron leucarpum
  64. Mistletoe Gall, caused byMistletoe haustorium growing on a tree
  65. Mourning Cloak Butterfly, Nymphalis antiopa
  66. Mourning Dove, Zenaida macroura
  67. Non-biting Midges, Family: Chironomidae
  68. Northern Flicker, Colaptes auratus
  69. Oakmoss Lichen, Evernia prunastri
  70. Oleander Aphid, Aphis nerii
  71. Orange Bonnet Mushroom, Mycena acicula
  72. Pacific Madrone Tree, Arbutus menziesii
  73. Pigeon, Domestic Pigeon, Columba livia domestica
  74. Pin-cushion Sunburst Lichen, Polycauliona polycarpa
  75. Pink Elongated Springtail, Podura sp.
  76. Pink Honeysuckle, California Honeysuckle, Lonicera hispidula
  77. Ponderosa Pine, Pinus ponderosa
  78. Poor Man’s Slippery Jack, Suillus fuscotomentosus [sort of looks like a bolete]
  79. Powderhorn Lichen, Common Powderhorn, Cladonia coniocraea
  80. Powdery Sunburst Lichen, Xanthoria ulophyllodes [yellow, leafy, rare on rocks but does sometimes appear on them]
  81. Red-Shouldered Hawk, Buteo lineatus [heard]
  82. Red-Tailed Hawk, Buteo jamaicensis
  83. Red-Winged Blackbird, Agelaius phoeniceus
  84. Rove Beetle, Quedius sp. [red-orange] ??
  85. Ruby-Crowned Kinglet, Regulus calendula
  86. Scaly Rustgill Mushroom, Gymnopilus sapineus
  87. Shield Lichen Parmelia sulcata [gray foliose lichen on trees]
  88. Sidewalk Firedot Lichen, Xanthocarpia feracissima  [bright orange, on rocks]
  89. Silky Piggyback Mushrooms,  Asterophora parasitica
  90. Slime Mold, Carnival Candy Slime Mold, Arcyria denudata
  91. Slime Mold, Honeycomb Coral Slime Mold, Ceratiomyxa fruticulosa
  92. Slime Mold, Insect Egg Slime Mold, Badhamia sp. [early stages of plasmodium]
  93. Slime Mold, Spotted Trichia Slime Mold, Trichia botrytis
  94. Soaproot, Amole, Chlorogalum pomeridianum ssp. pomeridianum
  95. Speckled Greenshield, Flavopunctelia flaventior
  96. Stonewall Rim Lichen, Lecona muralis [ pale green/gray thallus with rose/tan apothecia gathered in the center; color can be quite variable]
  97. Stonewall Rim Lichen, Protoparmeliopsis muralis [tan, pebbled with leafy edges, orange-tan apothecia]
  98. Striped Skunk, Mephitis mephitis [road kill, saw 5]
  99. Sulphur Tuft Fungus, Hypholoma fasciculare 
  100. Tan Nipple Lichen, Thelomma santessonii [gray/tan, deep holes in the structures]
  101. Tanoak, Tanbark Oak, Notholithocarpus densiflorus
  102. Toy Soldiers, Cladonia bellidiflora  [stalks are crusty, heads are split with red faces]
  103. Toyon, Heteromeles arbutifolia
  104. Trembling Crust Fungus, Merulius tremellosus [with guttation]
  105. Turkey Tail Fungus, Trametes versicolor
  106. Turkey Vulture, Cathartes aura
  107. Velvety Tree Ant, Liometopum occidentale
  108. Western Gray Squirrel, Sciurus griseus
  109. White Leaf Manzanita, Arctostaphylos viscida ssp. viscida
  110. Winter Moth, Operophtera brumata [larvae, green inchworm with orange head]
  111. Woolly Bird’s Nest Fungus, Nidula niveotomentosa
  112. Wooly Foam Lichen, Stereocaulon ramulosum [like Oakmoss but very crusty with small brown apothecia at the end of the branches]
  113. Yellow-Billed Magpie, Pica nuttalli

Napa Trip Day One, 02-04-20

Napa Trip Day One: My friend and fellow naturalist, Roxanne and I, took Highway 113, and stopped in Davis for a little breakfast (breakfast sammich and coffee) and then we stayed pretty much on Highway 128 through Winters, past the Monticello Dam and around Lake Berryessa to the city of Angwin. At a market across the street from Pacific Union College, we met with some of my other naturalist class graduates: Pam, Patty, Elaine, and Deborah (who was the one who organized the group and hosted us at her home). It was so great to see them all again and to spend the day with them out in nature.

Me (right) with Pam on the trail. Obviously, I didn’t take this photo.

Just a short drive down the road from the market we went to the Pacific Union College Forest.  According to the college website:

“The forested lands of Pacific Union College were once the winter camp of the Wappo tribe of California Indians, who enjoyed a bountiful supply of acorns. In 1843 the land became part of a Mexican land grant to George Yount. After the Mexican-American war, settlers used the redwoods to build homes and make grape stakes for vineyards. 

Lumber was the primary industry on Howell Mountain until Edwin Angwin built his resort hotel in 1883. PUC purchased Angwin’s resort in 1909. Since then, the forest has supported the mission of the college by providing lumber for classroom buildings and residence halls, firewood for heat, and recreation in the ‘back 40’. In the 1950s, the biology faculty began to enrich student learning by studying native trees, shrubs, and wildlife.

Today the PUC Demonstration and Experimental Forest is protected by a conservation easement in partnership with the California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection (CalFire) and the Land Trust of Napa County. As such, it will always remain forest and provide learning opportunities for PUC students as well as 35 miles of recreational trails—for mountain biking, hiking, horseback riding—for students, college employees, and community members. Home to a nesting pair of Northern Spotted Owls, the rare Napa False Indigo, and some of the easternmost Coastal Redwood trees, the rich biodiversity of the PUC forest makes is especially valuable to conservationists and researchers. Our forest truly sets PUC apart and makes Angwin a unique and special place to live, learn, and grow.”

You can get a map of the trails here.

It was very chilly and breezy when we got to the forest, so we were all pretty much bundled up for the whole walk but that didn’t hamper our enthusiasm or exploration. 

CLICK HERE for the full album of today’s photos.

Because of the part of the trail system we were on, we didn’t see a lot of fungi, but the lichens were everywhere and we also found some insects and a tiny, beautiful California Slender Salamander (Batrachoseps attenuates).  These little guys are nearly-endemic to northern California and breathe through their skin (so we were careful not to handle it).The one we found was snuggled down into a hole under a log and wrapped around a stick.  It’s hard to describe how small they are; most people mistake them for little worms…

California Slender Salamander, Batrachoseps attenuates

According to Wikipedia: “…From May to October, aestivation is the norm for this species. Unlike other members of its genus, egg-laying occurs quite early, as soon as December in the southern part of its range. Oviposition is thought to occur primarily in the tunnels of other creatures, but clusters have commonly been found on moist surfaces beneath bark, rocks, or other types of forest detritus. Clutches contain approximately five to twenty individual eggs, but five to ten different females may use the exact oviposition site; in any case, hatching occurs around March or April, somewhat later in the extreme northern part of the range.”

Such neat little dudes.

As I mentioned, we saw a lot of lichen there that we don’t get to see in the valley.  I’d been looking all over for some “Toy Soldier” and “Lipstick” lichen in Sacramento, and just wasn’t finding it anywhere.  They’re both lichens that stand straight up and have red “lips” at the end of their stalks.  There in the PUC forest, I found several specimens of both… and was surprised by how small they are.  In books, you see photos of them and they look as big as your fingers, but they’re really quite tiny.       

Toy Soldiers, Cladonia bellidiflora

Along with those two, I also got to see live for the first time specimens of Beaded Tube Lichen, FishboneBeard Lichen, Crabseye Lichen, Speckled Greenshield, Farinose Cartilage Lichen, Mealy Pixie Cups and others.

Lung Lichen, Lobaria anthraspis

We also found some great specimens of Woolly Birdsnest Fungus, which unlike the Common Birdsnests we see here, are taller and covered in fine hairs.

Woolly Bird’s Nest Fungus, Nidula niveotomentosa

And we got to see some Candlesnuff Fungus, also called Carbon Antlers.  These were very unobtrusive-looking little “antlers” that were stickling straight up from the ground around a burl.  When Deb touched them, they spewed frost-looking smoky clouds of spores all around them.  [[I was so busy watching Deb flick the antlers and video the spores, that I forgot to take photos myslef!  D’oh!  So, I hope she shares her video with everyone.]] 

Here’s a little bit of a write upon it from Wikipedia: “Specimens found earlier in the season, in spring, may be covered completely in asexual spores (conidia), which manifests itself as a white to grayish powdery deposit. Later in the season, mature ascocarps are charcoal-black, and have minute pimple-like bumps called perithecia on the surface. These are minute rounded spore bearing structures with tiny holes, or ostioles, for the release of sexual spores (ascospores).”

So, what we were seeing was the release of the asexual spores.  How fascinating is that?!  The fungus has two ways of reproducing: asexually and sexually.  Nature tries everything.

As for mushrooms, there weren’t a whole lot on the part of the trail we traveled, but we did find a few specimens of ones like Cowboy’s Handkerchief, Milky Caps and Slippery Jacks.  (Who names these things? Hah!)

Poor Man’s Slippery Jack, Suillus fuscotomentosus

I figured we walked from about 9:30 am to 2:00 pm, taking a break once for snacks.  I hadn’t carried any food into the woods with me (it was all sitting in the back of the car). I wasn’t really hungry at all but Elaine shared her tea with me, and Deb gave me part of her PB&J sandwich which I thought was super-sweet of them. 

I liked Elaine’s idea of taking hot tea out into the forest with you. Seems very “Downton Abbey” to me…except that I’d have to carry the tea myself instead of having servants carrying it and setting it up for me – along with petit fours and cucumber sandwiches – further up the trail. How fun would THAT be!  I need to organize something like that sometime… (Where’s my Publishers Clearinghouse money!?)

I’d very much like to go to the PUC forest again sometime, and maybe attack some of the other trails. There’s supposed to be an area where there are young Redwood trees, and wetter more riparian habitat.  It’s just that lo-o-o-o-n-g drive back and forth.  The gals said, though, that the hotel in Winters is finally finished and that’s kind of at the halfway point between here and Napa, so that might help.

After our walk, Elaine, Pam and Patty all went back to their respective abodes, but Roxanne and I did an overnight visit at Deb’s place.  Her house is very cozy and lovely, filled with art and craftwork, some of it done by her and her mom.  Her mother does pottery, so there were example of her work in the plates, bowls and trays used throughout the house.  And Deb does really incredible work with gourds.  You can see some of them here.

Roxanne at the table web Deb and me, noshing of fruit and veggies while we research what we saw today.

The first thing we did when we got to Deb’s was sit around the kitchen table with our cellphones and cameras, and piles of field guides, and tried to make a list of everything we’d see that day.  It was so much fun being surrounded by people who get as excited about identifying a “new-to-me” lichen as I do, pouring through the books, comparing photos and notes.  I loved it!  These ladies are so “my tribe”. Hah! 

CLICK HERE for Day Two.

Species List For Both Days:

  1. Acorn Woodpecker, Melanerpes formicivorus
  2. American Robin, Turdus migratorius
  3. Arundo, Giant Reed, Arundo donax
  4. Bay Laurel Tree, Laurus nobilis
  5. Beaded Tube Lichen, Hypogymnia apinnata
  6. Big-headed Ground Beetle, Scarites subterraneus [black, shiny, large mandibles] ??
  7. Black Cobweb Spider, Steatoda capensis
  8. Black Jelly Roll fungus, Exidia glandulosa
  9. Brewer’s Blackbird, Euphagus cyanocephalus
  10. Bright Cobblestone Lichen, Acarospora socialis [bright yellow, on rocks]
  11. Bufflehead Duck, Bucephala albeola
  12. California Black Oak, Quercus kelloggii
  13. California Pipevine, Dutchman’s Pipe, Aristolochia californica
  14. California Scrub Jay, Aphelocoma californica
  15. California Slender Salamander, Batrachoseps attenuates
  16. Canada Goose, Branta canadensis
  17. Candlesnuff Fungus, Carbon Antlers, Xylaria hypoxylon [upright, branched, white with a layer of spores; spores release at a touch]
  18. Canyon Live Oak, Quercus chrysolepis
  19. Chamise, Adenostoma fasciculatum
  20. Cinder Lichen, Aspicilia cinerea
  21. Coastal Woodfern, Dryopteris arguta [pointed leaves, two rows of spore sites]
  22. Columbian Black-Tailed Deer, Odocoileus hemionus columbianus
  23. Common Crow, Corvus brachyrhynchos
  24. Common Gold Cobblestone Lichen, Pleopsidium flavum [bright yellow]
  25. Common Gray Disk Fungus, Mollisia olivascens
  26. Common Jelly Spot fungus, Dacrymyces stillatus
  27. Common Merganser, Mergus merganser
  28. Conifer Mazegill, Gloeophyllum sepiarium
  29. Cowboys Handkerchief, Waxy Cap Mushroom, Hygrophorus eburneus
  30. Coyote Brush, Baccharis pilularis
  31. Crabseye Lichen, Ochrolechia subpallescens [creamy colored lichen with white-rimmed pale orange/pink apothecia on trees]
  32. Crampball Fungus, Daldinia concentrica
  33. Dark-Winged Fungus Gnat, Bradysia sp.
  34. Dendroalsia Moss, Dendroalsia abietina [long curling moss on trees]
  35. Double-Crested Cormorant, Phalacrocorax auratus
  36. Douglas Fir Tree, Pseudotsuga menziesii
  37. Dusky Tile Lichen, Lecidea Lichen, Lecidea fuscoatra  [black rimmed apothecia on rocks]
  38. Ear-leaf Lichen, Normandina pulchella [green leaf-like on rocks]
  39. Eastern Fox Squirrel, Sciurus niger
  40. Farinose Cartilage Lichen,  Ramalina farinacea [like Oakmoss but very thin branches]
  41. Fishbone Beard Lichen, Usnea filipendula [hairy eyeballs]
  42. Fluffy Dust Lichen, Pacific Fluffy Dust Lichen, Lepraria pacifica
  43. Fremont’s Cottonwood, Populus fremontii
  44. Fringed Wrinkle Lichen, Tuckermanopsis americana [pale green, brown fringes, on trees]
  45. Globular Springtail, Ptenothrix marmorata 
  46. Goldback Fern, Pentagramma triangularis
  47. Gray lungwort, Lobaria hallii  [gray to green, with soredia on surface]
  48. Gray Pine, Pinus sabiniana
  49. Great Blue Heron, Ardea Herodias
  50. Great Egret, Ardea alba
  51. Green Shield Lichen, Flavoparmelia caperata
  52. Green Trichoderma MoldTrichoderma viride 
  53. Herre’s Ragged Lichen, Platismatia herrei
  54. Hidden Goldspeck Lichen, Candelariella aurella [small, scattered, yellow, on rocks]
  55. House Finch, Haemorhous mexicanus
  56. Ink Lichen, Placynthium nigrum [pitch black, fine grained]
  57. Interior Live Oak, Quercus wislizeni
  58. Lace Lichen, Ramalina menziesii
  59. Lipstick Powderhorn, Cladonia macilenta
  60. Lung Lichen, Lobaria anthraspis
  61. Mealy Pixie Cup, Cladonia chlorophaea
  62. Milky Cap, Hemimycena hirsute [tiny white mushrooms with distant gills]
  63. Mistletoe, American Mistletoe, Big Leaf Mistletoe, Phoradendron leucarpum
  64. Mistletoe Gall, caused byMistletoe haustorium growing on a tree
  65. Mourning Cloak Butterfly, Nymphalis antiopa
  66. Mourning Dove, Zenaida macroura
  67. Non-biting Midges, Family: Chironomidae
  68. Northern Flicker, Colaptes auratus
  69. Oakmoss Lichen, Evernia prunastri
  70. Oleander Aphid, Aphis nerii
  71. Orange Bonnet Mushroom, Mycena acicula
  72. Pacific Madrone Tree, Arbutus menziesii
  73. Pigeon, Domestic Pigeon, Columba livia domestica
  74. Pin-cushion Sunburst Lichen, Polycauliona polycarpa
  75. Pink Elongated Springtail, Podura sp.
  76. Pink Honeysuckle, California Honeysuckle, Lonicera hispidula
  77. Ponderosa Pine, Pinus ponderosa
  78. Poor Man’s Slippery Jack, Suillus fuscotomentosus [sort of looks like a bolete]
  79. Powderhorn Lichen, Common Powderhorn, Cladonia coniocraea
  80. Powdery Sunburst Lichen, Xanthoria ulophyllodes [yellow, leafy, rare on rocks but does sometimes appear on them]
  81. Red-Shouldered Hawk, Buteo lineatus [heard]
  82. Red-Tailed Hawk, Buteo jamaicensis
  83. Red-Winged Blackbird, Agelaius phoeniceus
  84. Rove Beetle, Quedius sp. [red-orange] ??
  85. Ruby-Crowned Kinglet, Regulus calendula
  86. Scaly Rustgill Mushroom, Gymnopilus sapineus
  87. Shield Lichen Parmelia sulcata [gray foliose lichen on trees]
  88. Sidewalk Firedot Lichen, Xanthocarpia feracissima  [bright orange, on rocks]
  89. Silky Piggyback Mushrooms,  Asterophora parasitica
  90. Slime Mold, Carnival Candy Slime Mold, Arcyria denudata
  91. Slime Mold, Honeycomb Coral Slime Mold, Ceratiomyxa fruticulosa
  92. Slime Mold, Insect Egg Slime Mold, Badhamia sp. [early stages of plasmodium]
  93. Slime Mold, Spotted Trichia Slime Mold, Trichia botrytis
  94. Soaproot, Amole, Chlorogalum pomeridianum ssp. pomeridianum
  95. Speckled Greenshield, Flavopunctelia flaventior
  96. Stonewall Rim Lichen, Lecona muralis [ pale green/gray thallus with rose/tan apothecia gathered in the center; color can be quite variable]
  97. Stonewall Rim Lichen, Protoparmeliopsis muralis [tan, pebbled with leafy edges, orange-tan apothecia]
  98. Striped Skunk, Mephitis mephitis [road kill, saw 5]
  99. Sulphur Tuft Fungus, Hypholoma fasciculare 
  100. Tan Nipple Lichen, Thelomma santessonii [gray/tan, deep holes in the structures]
  101. Tanoak, Tanbark Oak, Notholithocarpus densiflorus
  102. Toy Soldiers, Cladonia bellidiflora  [stalks are crusty, heads are split with red faces]
  103. Toyon, Heteromeles arbutifolia
  104. Trembling Crust Fungus, Merulius tremellosus [with guttation]
  105. Turkey Tail Fungus, Trametes versicolor
  106. Turkey Vulture, Cathartes aura
  107. Velvety Tree Ant, Liometopum occidentale
  108. Western Gray Squirrel, Sciurus griseus
  109. White Leaf Manzanita, Arctostaphylos viscida ssp. viscida
  110. Winter Moth, Operophtera brumata [larvae, green inchworm with orange head]
  111. Woolly Bird’s Nest Fungus, Nidula niveotomentosa
  112. Wooly Foam Lichen, Stereocaulon ramulosum [like Oakmoss but very crusty with small brown apothecia at the end of the branches]
  113. Yellow-Billed Magpie, Pica nuttalli

Lots of Diversity in a Small Space, 01-30-20

I got up around 7:00 am and was out the door by about 7:30 to go for a walk at the American River Bend Park.  It was sunny but cool at the river, about 46° when I got there.

Weather: Mostly sunny, a little haze
Total Hours in the field (includes travel time): 5 hours
Start Time: 8:00 am
End Time: 12:00 pm
Start Temperature: 46º F
End Temperature: 58º F
Miles Walked: 2

I was looking for fungi and wanted to get some closeup photos of the soredia on Oakmoss Lichen, but also saw and heard quite a few birds along the way.  There was a pair of Red-Shouldered Hawks flying back and forth between a couple of trees.  I wonder if they were picking a nesting spot.  In the river, I saw Buffledheads and Common Goldeneye.  They’re both ducks in the genus Bucephala and I wonder if they ever interbreed.

There was also a female Common Merganser and a Snowy Egret nearby on the shore.  And when I stopped to get some photos and video of a small flock of Lesser Goldfinches, I was surprised to see a couple of White-Breasted Nuthatches and Northern Flickers who came down into the same area.  And them some Spotted Towhees started bathing in a puddle just up the trail. Stand still, and nature comes to you… sometimes.  

Part of my research today included turning over some larger logs to see who or what was living underneath them, and in doing so, I came across two different species of Darkling Beetles. Darklings, also called “Stink Bugs” (although technically they’re not bugs, they’re beetles) are what mealworms grown up to be. There are over 20,000 species (!) of them worldwide so properly identifying them can be a bit tricky. 

Darkling Beetle, Eleodes scabrosus

I usually base my IDs on some major identifiers like the shape and size of pronotum (between the head and the abdomen), the segments in the antennae, and the markings on the elytra (the wing covers).  Some are smooth and glossy, some have striped grooves, some had pits… Nature is so diverse.

I also found three different kinds of slime mold including White Spheroid, Lilac Physarum and Tan Bullet! The colors and shapes of these things always amaze me.

Lilac Physarum Slime Mold, Physarum globuliferum

CLICK HERE for the full album of photos

As I mentioned, I made a point of looking for the soredia on Oakmoss Lichen, Evernia prunastri. One specimen gave me views of the soredia AND apothecia, AND also had some Shrubby Sunburst Lichen, Polycauliona Candelaria growing on it. A three-fer!

The pale crumbly bits are the soredia, the disk shapes are the apothecia, and the yellow stuff is the Shrubby Sunburst lichen.

There were lots and lots of Inkcap mushrooms around, and quite a number of Blewits, too. I was happy to see some Red-Cracking Bolete mushrooms, also called Russian Reds, at the park.  I haven’t seen them there for almost a decade!  Boletes have tubes under the cap instead of gills, and some of them stain blue when you cut them.

Red-Cracking Bolete, Russian Red, Xerocomellus chrysenteron

My sister Melissa had postulated that we’re seeing more fungi this year because of the foggy mornings, and I think she’s really onto something there.  With the protracted drought, we didn’t have much fog over the past several years, whereas, this year we’re having a lot of fog.

I also found a really nice grouping of six Horsehair Mushroom, Gymnopus quercophilus, on a leaf.  This kind of mushroom can dry up into little pin-prick sized ‘shrooms when it’s hot outside, survive the summer, and then reappear as full-sized mushrooms in the next rainy season.  They LOVE leaf litter.

When I was getting some close ups of some Black Jelly Roll fungus, I could see a tiny pink creature crawling on it, so I switched from photo to video and got a little snippet of its movements.  It was a Pink Elongated Springtail, Podura sp. In the video you see it walking along, falling over, and then springing away.  

They move sooooo fast when they spring you can’t keep track of them.  Here’s a cool article on springtails and their “mysterious” collophore: https://entomologytoday.org/2015/08/27/the-collophore-helps-put-the-spring-in-springtails/

So, I ended up seeing a lot more than I was actually looking for, which always makes for a fun walk.  I was so involved with what I was seeing, too, that I lost track of time.  At one point, I wondered why I was so tired… until I looked at the time and realized I’d been walking for about 4 hours!  Time flies when you’re ‘shrooming.

Species List:

  1. Acorn Woodpecker, Melanerpes formicivorus
  2. Anomodon Moss, Anomodon attenuates [low lying, soft, bushy moss]
  3. Audubon’s Warbler, Setophaga coronata auduboni
  4. Barometer Earthstar fungus, Astraeus hygrometricus
  5. Black Jelly Roll fungus, Exidia glandulosa
  6. Black Phoebe, Sayornis nigricans
  7. Bufflehead Duck, Bucephala albeola
  8. Canada Goose, Branta canadensis
  9. Cavalier Mushroom, Melanoleuca melaleuca
  10. Common Goldeneye, Bucephala clangula
  11. Common Ink Cap Mushroom, Coprinopsis atramentaria
  12. Common Merganser, Mergus merganser
  13. Crystal Brain Fungus, Granular Jelly Roll, Myxarium nucleatum
  14. Darkling Beetle, Eleodes scabrosus [pitted pronotum and elytra]
  15. Dark-Winged Fungus Gnat, Bradysia sp. [larvae]
  16. Deer Shield Mushroom, Pluteus cervinus
  17. European Starling, Sturnus vulgaris
  18. Fairy Ring Mushroom, Scotch Bonnet, Marasmius oreades
  19. False Turkey Tail fungus, Hairy Curtain Crust, Stereum hirsutum
  20. Garden Snail, Cornu aspersum
  21. Golden Shield Lichen, Xanthoria parietina
  22. Green Shield Lichen, Flavoparmelia caperata
  23. Green Trichoderma MoldTrichoderma viride 
  24. Honey Fungus, Ringless Honey Fungus, Armarilla tabescens
  25. Horsehair Mushroom, Oak-leaf Pinwheel, Gymnopus quercophilus
  26. Horsehair Mushroom, Gymnopus androsaceus
  27. Interior Live Oak, Quercus wislizeni
  28. Lesser Goldfinch, Spinus psaltria
  29. Live Oak Gall Wasp, 1st Generation, Callirhytis quercuspomiformis
  30. Miner’s Lettuce Claytonia perfoliate
  31. Mower’s Mushroom, Haymaker Mushroom, Panaeolus foenisecii
  32. Netted Crust Fungus, Byssomerulius corium
  33. Northern Flicker, Colaptes auratus
  34. Oak Titmouse, Baeolophus inornatus
  35. Oakmoss Lichen, Evernia prunastri
  36. Obscure Darkling Beetle, Eleodes obscura [striped grooves on elytra]
  37. Palomino Cup Fungus, Peziza repanda
  38. Pink Elongated Springtail, Podura sp.
  39. Pleated Ink Cap, Parasol Ink Cap, Parasola plicatilis
  40. Pleated Marasmius, Red-Thread Mushroom, Marasmius plicatulus
  41. Pocket-Stalked Russula, Russula cerolens [white stipe and yellow-tan gills]
  42. Purple Core, Bluet, Blewit, Clitocybe nuda (Lepista nuda)
  43. Rain-Beetle, Pterostichus melanarius [black, shiny pronotum, grooved elytra]
  44. Red-Cracking Bolete, Russian Red, Xerocomellus chrysenteron
  45. Red-Shouldered Hawk, Buteo lineatus
  46. Rio Grande Wild Turkey, Meleagris gallopavo intermedia
  47. Shrubby Sunburst Lichen Polycauliona Candelaria
  48. Silky Pink Gill Mushroom, Nolanea sericea (Entoloma sericeum ssp. sericeum) 
  49. Slime Mold, Lilac Physarum Slime Mold, Physarum globuliferum
  50. Slime Mold, Tan Bullet Slime Mold, Arcyria cinereal
  51. Slime Mold, White Spheroid Slime Mold, Physarum cinereum
  52. Snowy Egret, Egretta thula
  53. Spotted Towhee, Pipilo maculatus
  54. Strap Lichen, Western Strap Lichen, Ramalina leptocarpha
  55. Sunburst Lichen, Xanthoria elegans
  56. Trembling Crust Fungus, Merulius tremellosus [white or orange-tinted, forms brackets, a little bit of a tooth on the underside]
  57. Turkey Tail Fungus, Trametes versicolor
  58. Valley Oak, Quercus lobata
  59. Western Gray Squirrel, Sciurus griseus
  60. White Alder, Alnus rhombifolia
  61. White Jelly Fungus, Ductifera pululahuana
  62. White Stubble Rosegill, Volvopluteus gloiocephalusi
  63. White-Breasted Nuthatch, Sitta carolinensis
  64. Witches Butter, Tremella mesenterica
  65. Yellow Fieldcap, Bolbitius titubans
  66. ?? Nolenae mushroom [dark brown cap]
  67. ?? Tiny ballooning spider