Species List 2022

Here is my running species list for 2022. I’m including those I’ve taken photos of, heard, saw without getting a photo of, or found tracks/scat that I could identify. You can see last year’s species list HERE.

Total Species this year: 961

JANFEBMARAPRMAYJUN
4223915923223059
JULYAUGSEPTOCTNOVDEC
Number of individual species observed/recorded per month.
Includes 71 new-to-me [lifer] species.

Arachnids: (Last year: 22 species)

  1. Crab Spider, Goldenrod Crab Spider, Misumena vatia
  2. Crab Spider, Running Crab Spider, Family: Philodromidae
  3. False Black Widow Spider, Steatoda grossa [lifer]
  4. Funnel Weaver Spider, Subfamily: Ageleninae
  5. Humped Trashline Orbweaver Spider, Cyclosa turbinata
  6. Jumping Spider, Arboreal Jumping Spider, Colonus hesperus [“checkerboard” head with white dot in the center]
  7. Jumping Spider, Hairy Jumping Spider, Menemerus semilimbatus [males have white, fuzzy pedipalps]
  8. Jumping Spider, Johnson’s Jumping Spider, Phidippus johnsoni [red and black abdomen] [lifer]
  9. Meshweaver Spider, Family: Dictynidae
  10. Meshweaver Spider, Mallos sp. [small, pale tan with dark dot on the abdomen]
  11. Orb-Weaver Spider, Family: Araneidae
  12. Sheetweaver Spider, Family: Linyphiidae
  13. Sheetweb Spider, Microlinyphia mandibulata [tiny, black with white mottling on abdomen]
  14. Six-Spotted Orbweaver Spider, Araniella displicata
  15. Stretch Spider, Long-Jawed Orbweaver, Tetragnatha sp.
  16. Stretch Spider, Tetragnatha extensa [pale tan abdomen]
  17. Swift Crab Spider, Mecaphesa celer
  18. Unidentified Spiders, Order: Araneae
  19. Western Black Widow Spider, Latrodectus hesperus
  20. Western Spotted Orbweaver, Neoscona oaxacensis

Birds: (Last year: 173 species)

  1. Acorn Woodpecker, Melanerpes formicivorus
  2. American Avocet, Recurvirostra americana
  3. American Bittern, Botaurus lentiginosus
  4. American Coot, Fulica americana
  5. American Goldfinch, Spinus tristis
  6. American Kestrel, Falco sparverius
  7. American Pipit, Anthus rubescens
  8. American Robin, Turdus migratorius
  9. American White Pelican, Pelecanus erythrorhynchos
  10. American Wigeon, Anas americana
  11. Anna’s Hummingbird, Calypte anna
  12. Ash-Throated Flycatcher, Myiarchus cinerascens
  13. Audubon’s Warbler, Yellow-Rumped Warbler, Setophaga coronata auduboni
  14. Bald Eagle, Haliaeetus leucocephalus
  15. Belted Kingfisher, Megaceryle alcyon
  16. Black-Crowned Night Heron, Nycticorax nycticorax
  17. Black-Headed Grosbeak, Pheucticus melanocephalus
  18. Black-Necked Stilt, Himantopus mexicanus
  19. Black Phoebe, Sayornis nigricans
  20. Blue-Winged Teal, Spatula discors
  21. Brewer’s Blackbird, Euphagus cyanocephalus
  22. Brown Creeper, Certhia americana
  23. Brown-Headed Cowbird, Molothrus ater
  24. Bufflehead Duck, Bucephala albeola
  25. Bullock’s Oriole, Icterus bullockii
  26. Bushtit, American Bushtit, Psaltriparus minimus
  27. Cackling Goose, Branta hutchinsii
  28. California Quail, Callipepla californica
  29. California Scrub Jay, Aphelocoma californica
  30. Canada Goose, Branta canadensis
  31. Canvasback Duck, Aythya valisineria
  32. Cassin’s Kingbird, Tyrannus vociferans [lifer]
  33. Cayuga Duck, Anas platyrhynchos domesticus var. Cayuga
  34. Cedar Waxwing, Bombycilla cedrorum
  35. Cinnamon Teal, Anas cyanoptera
  36. Common Gallinule, Gallinula galeata
  37. Common Goldeneye, Bucephala clangula
  38. Common Merganser, Mergus merganser
  39. Common Yellowthroat, Geothlypis trichas
  40. Cooper’s Hawk, Acipiter cooperii
  41. Crested Duck, Anas platyrhynchos domesticus var. Crested
  42. Crow, American Crow, Corvus brachyrhynchos
  43. Dark-Eyed Junco, Junco hyemalis
  44. Double-Crested Cormorant, Phalacrocorax auratus
  45. Downy Woodpecker, Dryobates pubescens
  46. Dunlin, Calidris alpina
  47. Eurasian Collared Dove, Streptopelia decaocto
  48. European Starling, Sturnus vulgaris
  49. Gadwall Duck, Mareca strepera
  50. Graylag Goose, Domestic Graylag Goose, Anser anser domesticus
  51. Great Blue Heron, Ardea herodias
  52. Great Egret, Ardea alba
  53. Great Horned Owl, Bubo virginianus
  54. Great-Tailed Grackle, Quiscalus mexicanus
  55. Greater White-Fronted Goose, Anser albifrons
  56. Greater Yellowlegs, Tringa melanoleuca
  57. Grebe, Eared Grebe, Podiceps nigricollis
  58. Grebe, Pied-Billed Grebe, Podilymbus podiceps
  59. Grebe, Western Grebe, Aechmophorus occidentalis [black below the eye]
  60. Green Heron, Butorides virescens
  61. Green-Winged Teal, Anas carolinensis
  62. Greylag Goose × Domestic Swan Goose, Anser anser domesticus × anser cygnoide
  63. Gull, Larus sp.
  64. Gull, California Gull, Larus californicus [yellow legs; dark eye; red spot]
  65. Gull, Olympic Gull, Larus glaucescens × occidentalis
  66. Gull, Ring-Billed Gull, Larus delawarensis
  67. Gull, Western Gull, Larus occidentalis [spot on bill, pink legs, orange circle around eye]
  68. Hermit Thrush, Catharus guttatus
  69. Hooded Merganser, Lophodytes cucullatus
  70. House Finch, Haemorhous mexicanus
  71. Indian Runner Duck, Anas platyrhynchos domesticus var. Indian Runner
  72. Killdeer, Charadrius vociferous
  73. Least Sandpiper, Calidris minutilla
  74. Lesser Goldfinch, Spinus psaltria
  75. Lesser Scaup, Aythya affinis [lifer]
  76. Long-Billed Dowitcher, Limnodromus scolopaceus
  77. Mallard Duck, Anas platyrhynchos
  78. Mourning Dove, Zenaida macroura
  79. Muscovy Duck, Cairina moschata
  80. Mute Swan, Cygnus olor
  81. Northern Flicker, Colaptes auratus
  82. Northern Harrier, Marsh Hawk, Circus hudsonius
  83. Northern Mockingbird, Mimus polyglottos
  84. Northern Pintail, Anas acuta
  85. Northern Shoveler, Anas clypeata
  86. Nuttall’s Woodpecker, Picoides nuttallii
  87. Oak Titmouse, Baeolophus inornatus
  88. Orange-Crowned Warbler, Leiothlypis celata [lifer]
  89. Osprey, Pandion haliaetus
  90. Peacock, Peafowl, Indian Peafowl, Pavo cristatus
  91. Pekin Duck, Anas platyrhynchos domesticus var. Pekin
  92. Pigeon, Rock Pigeon, Columba livia
  93. Raven, Common Raven, Corvus corax
  94. Redhead Duck, Aythya americana
  95. Red-Breasted Nuthatch, Sitta canadensis
  96. Red-Breasted Sapsucker, Sphyrapicus ruber
  97. Red-Shouldered Hawk, California Red-Shouldered Hawk, Buteo lineatus elegans
  98. Red-Tailed Hawk, Western Red-Tailed Hawk, Buteo jamaicensis calurus
  99. Red-Winged Blackbird, Agelaius phoeniceus
  100. Ring-Necked Duck, Aythya collaris
  101. Ring-Necked Pheasant, Phasianus colchicus
  102. Rio Grande Wild Turkey, Meleagris gallopavo intermedia
  103. Ruby-Crowned Kinglet, Regulus calendula
  104. Ruddy Duck, Oxyura jamaicensis
  105. Sandhill Crane, Grus canadensis
  106. Snow Goose, Chen caerulescens
  107. Snowy Egret, Egretta thula
  108. Sora, Porzana carolina
  109. Sparrow, Chipping Sparrow, Spizella passerine [lifer]
  110. Sparrow, Golden-Crowned Sparrow, Zonotrichia atricapilla
  111. Sparrow, House Sparrow, Passer domesticus
  112. Sparrow, Lark Sparrow, Chondestes grammacus
  113. Sparrow, Savannah Sparrow, Passerculus sandwichensis
  114. Sparrow, Song Sparrow, Melospiza melodia
  115. Sparrow, White-Crowned Sparrow, Zonotrichia leucophrys
  116. Spotted Sandpiper, Actitis macularius
  117. Steller’s Jay, Cyanocitta stelleri
  118. Swainson’s Hawk, Buteo swainsoni
  119. Swallow, Barn Swallow, American Barn Swallow, Hirundo rustica erythrogaster
  120. Swallow, Cliff Swallow, Petrochelidon pyrrhonota
  121. Swallow, Northern Rough-Winged Swallow, Stelgidopteryx serripennis
  122. Swallow, Tree Swallow, Tachycineta bicolor
  123. Swan Goose, Anser cygnoides
  124. Towhee, California Towhee, Melozone crissalis
  125. Towhee, Spotted Towhee, Pipilo maculatus
  126. Townsend’s Warbler, Setophaga townsendi [lifer]
  127. Tundra Swan, Cygnus columbianus
  128. Turkey Vulture, Cathartes aura
  129. Vireo, Vireo sp.
  130. Western Bluebird, Sialia Mexicana
  131. Western Kingbird, Tyrannus verticalis
  132. Western Meadowlark, Sturnella neglecta
  133. Western Tanager, Piranga ludoviciana
  134. White-Breasted Nuthatch, Sitta carolinensis
  135. White-Faced Ibis, Plegadis chihi
  136. White-Headed Woodpecker, Dryobates albolarvatus [lifer]
  137. White Tailed Kite, Elanus leucurus
  138. Wilson’s Snipe, Gallinago delicata
  139. Wood Duck, Aix sponsa
  140. Wren, Bewick’s Wren, Thryomanes bewickii
  141. Wren, House Wren, Troglodytes aedon
  142. Wren, Marsh Wren, Cistothorus palustris
  143. Yellow-Billed Magpie, Pica nuttalli
  144. Yellow-Headed Blackbird, Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus [lifer]
  145. Yellow-Rumped Warbler, Setophaga coronata

Fish: (Last year: 8 species)

  1. Black Bass, Micropterus sp.
  2. Largemouth Bass, Micropterus salmoides
  3. Rainbow Trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss
  4. Redear Sunfish, Lepomis microlophus [stock fish, Mather Lake] [lifer]
  5. Western Mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis

Fungi and Molds: (Last year: 112 species)

  1. Barometer Earthstar, Hygroscopic Earthstar, Astraeus hygrometricus
  2. Blewit Mushroom, Purple Core, Lepista nuda
  3. Cavalier, Bald Knight Mushroom, Melanoleuca melaleuca [dark cap, white gills]
  4. Conical Brittlestem Mushroom, Parasola conopilea
  5. Crust Fungus, Split Porecrust, Xylodon paradoxus
  6. Giraffe Spots Crust Fungus, Peniophora albobadia
  7. False Turkey-Tail, Stereum hirsutum [thin, flattish, brown underside]
  8. Jelly Fungus, Brown Jelly Fungus, Leafy Brain, Phaeotremella foliacea
  9. Jelly Fungus, Warlocks’s Butter, Exidia nigricans [like black Witch’s Butter]
  10. Leaf Curl Fungus, Taphrina sp.
  11. Peach Leaf Curl Fungus, Taphrina deformans [also on nectarine]
  12. Pinkedge Bonnet Mushroom, Mycena capillaripes [pale tan, wide gills, very hairy stipe at the ends]
  13. Pleated Marasmius, Red Thread, Marasmius plicatulus
  14. Rosy Navel Mushroom, Contumyces rosellus
  15. Rufous Milkcap Mushroom, Lactarius rufus [reddish cap, paler gills, weeps a milky latex substance]
  16. Slime Mold, Lamproderma sp. [dark, metallic sheen, head on stalk]
  17. Slime Mold, Dog Vomit Slime Mold, Fuligo septica [yellow]
  18. Slime Mold, Dog Vomit Slime Mold, Mucilago crustacea [cream colored] [lifer]
  19. Slime Mold, Insect-Egg Slime Mold, Leocarpus fragilis
  20. Smoked Oysterling, Resupinatus applicatus [smokey black]
  21. Tuberous Polypore, Polyporus tuberaster [similar to Dryad’s Saddle]
  22. Turkey Tail Fungus, Trametes versicolor
  23. White Stubble Rosegill, Volvopluteus gloiocephalusi [white or gray mushroom, slick cap with colored center, pale pink to gills, papery volva]
  24. Wrinkled Crust Fungus, Phlebia radiata

Galls: (Last year: 83 species)

  1. Ash Leaf Curl Aphid, Prociphilus fraxinifolii
  2. Baccharis Stem Gall Midge, Rhopalomyia baccharis [creates twisting stems on coyote brush]
  3. Ball Gall Wasp, Callirhytis perfoveata [on live oak]
  4. California Black Walnut Pouch Gall Mite, Aceria brachytarsa
  5. Clustered Blister Gall Wasp, Family: Cynipidae [Russo, Plate 230, Page 158. On canyon live oak] [lifer]
  6. Cottonwood Catkin Gall Mite, Eriophyes neoessigi [long panicles like grapes]
  7. Cottonwood Leaf Gall Aphid, Pemphigus populivenae
  8. Coyote Brush Bud Gall midge, Rhopalomyia californica
  9. Coyote Brush Blister Mite, Aceria baccharices [also infests Mule Fat]
  10. Coyote Brush Rust Gall, Puccinia evadens
  11. Coyote Brush Stem Gall Moth, Gnorimoschema baccharisella
  12. Elm Leaf Pouch Gall Aphid, Tetraneura nigriabdominalis
  13. Eucalyptus Gall Wasp, Ophelimus maskelli [speckled; flat galls all over the leaf surface]
  14. Eucalyptus Stemgall Wasp, Leptocybe invasa [galls can also appear on the midvein]
  15. Flat-Topped Honeydew Gall Wasp, Disholcaspis eldoradensis
  16. Fluted Gall Wasp, Family: Cynipidae [Russo, plate 231,page 158. On canyon live oak] [lifer]
  17. Grape Erineum Mite, Colomerus vitis
  18. Gouty Stem Gall Wasp, Callirhytis quercussuttoni
  19. Hair Capsule Gall Wasp, Heteroecus sp. [Russo, plate 214,page 150. On canyon live oak] [lifer]
  20. Leaf Gall Wasp/ Unidentified per Russo, Tribe: Cynipidi [on Valley Oak]
  21. Leafy Bract Gall Wasp, Diplolepis californica [hard rosette gall on rose bush]
  22. Live Oak Erineum Mite Gall, Aceria mackiei
  23. Live Oak Folded Leaf Aphid, Stegophylla essigi [in live oaks, folds the leaf over itself; sometimes the leaf turns red/reddish]
  24. Live Oak Apple Gall Wasp, Spring generation, Amphibolips quercuspomiformis [upside down volcano on the edge of the leaf, green or brown]
  25. Live Oak Apple Gall Wasp, Summer Generation, Amphibolips quercuspomiformis [spiky ball]
  26. Live Oak Petiole Gall Wasp, Melikaiella flora
  27. Manzanita Leafgall Aphid, Tamalia coweni
  28. Oak Apple, California Gall Wasp, Andricus quercuscalifornicus
  29. Poplar Petiole Gall Aphid, Pemphigus populitransversus [on cottonwood]
  30. Poplar Petiole Gall Aphid, Pemphigus obesinymphae [new American species, “slit mouth”]
  31. Pumpkin Gall Wasp, Dryocosmus minusculus
  32. Rose Blister Gall Wasp, Diplolepis rosaefolii [hard midrib gall] [lifer]
  33. Round Gall Wasp, Burnettweldia washingtonensis [on valley oak]
  34. Ruptured Twig Gall Wasp, Callirhytis perdens [on live oaks]
  35. Solitary Oak Leafminer Moth, Cameraria hamadryadella [form whole-leaf blisters on oak] [lifer]
  36. Spiny Leaf Gall Wasp, Diplolepis polita [on rose leaves]
  37. Two-Horned Gall Wasp, unisexual gall, summer generation,  Dryocosmus dubiosus [small, green or mottled, on back of leaf along the midvein]
  38. Western Gall Rust, Cronartium harknessii [pine-pine]
  39. Willow Apple Gall Sawfly, Euura californica
  40. Willow Bead Gall Mite, Aculus tetanothrix
  41. Willow Beaked-Gall Midge, Rabdophaga rigidae
  42. Willow Bud Gall Mite, Aculops aenigma [look like the ash mite galls] [lifer]
  43. Willow Fold Gall Sawfly, Euura sp. [Phyllocolpa sp.]
  44. Willow Midrib Gall Sawfly, Suborder: Symphyta, Unknown [Russo, page 219] [lifer]
  45. Willow Petiole Gall Sawfly, Subfamily: Nematinae
  46. Willow Pinecone Gall Midge, Rabdophaga strobiloides
  47. Willow Rose Gall Midge, Rabdophaga rosaria [on terminal bud point]
  48. Willow Rosette Gall Midge, Rabdophaga salicisbrassicoides [on stem]
  49. Willow Stem Sawfly, Euura exiguae

Insects, Arthropods, Hexapods: (Last year: 218 species)

  1. Acmon Blue Butterfly, Icaricia acmon
  2. Allokermes, Live Oak Kermes, Allokermes cueroensis
  3. Anise Swallowtail Butterfly, Papilio zelicaon
  4. Ant, Andre’s Harvester Ant, Veromessor andrei [black]
  5. Ant, Argentine Ant, Linepithema humile
  6. Ant, California Harvester Ant, Pogonomyrmex californicus [red]
  7. Ant, Fusca-Group Field Ants, Formica fusca
  8. Ant, Immigrant Pavement Ant, Tetramorium immigrans [lifer]
  9. Ant, Velvety Tree Ant, Liometopum occidentale
  10. Aphid, Family: Aphididae
  11. Aphid, Giant Willow Aphid, Tuberolachnus salignus
  12. Aphid, Macrosiphum sp. [pink or green]
  13. Aphid, Mealy Plum Aphid, Hyalopterus pruni
  14. Aphid, Mullein Aphid, Aphis verbasci
  15. Aphid, Oleander Aphid, Aphis nerii [yellow-orange with black legs]
  16. Aphid, Smoky Poplar Aphid, Chaitophorus populicola [adults are black]
  17. Backswimmer, Notonecta sp. [large eyes]
  18. Bee, European Honeybee, Western Honeybee, Apis mellifera
  19. Bee, Leafcutter Bee, Megachile sp.
  20. Bee, Long-Horned Bee, Melissodes sp.
  21. Bee, Tripartite Sweat Bee, Halictus tripartitus
  22. Bee Fly, Bombylius sp.
  23. Bee Fly, Greater Bee Fly, Bombylius major
  24. Bee Fly, Villa lateralis [looks like a bee but with fly eyes]
  25. Big-Eyed Toad Bug, Gelastocoris oculatus
  26. Brown Grass Bug, Irbisia californica
  27. Bumblebee, Black-Tailed Bumble Bee, Bombus melanopygus [lifer]
  28. Bumblebee, Bee, Foothill Carpenter Bee, Xylocopa tabaniformis orpifex
  29. Bumblebee, Yellow-Faced Bumble Bee, Bombus vosnesenskii
  30. Cabbage White Butterfly, Pieris rapae
  31. Caddisfly, Black Dancer Caddisfly, Mystacides sepulchralis
  32. Caddisfly, Net-Spinning Caddisfly, Hydropsyche sp.
  33. Caddisfly, White Miller Caddisfly, Nectopsyche sp. [lifer]
  34. California Bordered Plant Bug, Largus californicus
  35. California Broad-Necked Darkling Beetle, Coelocnemis dilaticollis
  36. California Oak Moth (oakworm), Phryganidia californica
  37. California Millipede, Bollmaniulus sp.
  38. California Pipevine Swallowtail Butterfly, Battus philenor hirsuta
  39. California Tortoiseshell Butterfly, Nymphalis californica [lifer]
  40. Case-Bearing Leaf Beetle, Cryptocephalus castaneus [lifer]
  41. Caterpillar Hunter Beetle, Calosoma cancellatum [like a Darkling with a sculpted carapace]
  42. Cicada, Typical Cicada, Family: Cicadidae
  43. Click Beetle, Family: Elateridae
  44. Clouded Sulphur Butterfly, Colias philodice
  45. Common Checkered Skipper, Burnsius communis
  46. Common Hover Fly Parasitoid Wasp, Diplazon laetatorius [colorful, yellow legs]
  47. Common Pill Woodlouse, Pillbug, Rolly-Poly, Armadillidium vulgare
  48. Confusing Petrophila Moth, Petrophila confusalis [tiny, pale, striped]
  49. Cottonwood Twig Borer Beetle, Oberea quadricallosa [red collar with black spots]
  50. Cranefly, European Crane Fly, Tipula paludosa
  51. Cranefly, Green-Eyed Cranefly, Tipula sp.
  52. Cranefly, Marsh Crane Fly, Tipula oleracea
  53. Cranefly, Spotted Cranefly, Nephrotoma wulpiana
  54. Cranefly, Tiger Cranefly, Subgenus: Hesperotipula
  55. Crown Whitefly, Aleuroplatus coronata
  56. Cutworm Wasp, Podalonia sp. [black, ground hunting, iridescent wings]
  57. Damselfly, American Rubyspot, Hetaerina americana
  58. Damselfly, Bluet, Enallagma sp.
  59. Damselfly, Emma’s Dancer, Argia emma [lifer]
  60. Damselfly, Familiar Bluet, Enallagma civile
  61. Damselfly, Pacific Forktail, Ischnura cervula
  62. Darkling Beetle, Blapstinus sp.
  63. Darkling Beetle, Tribe: Coniontini
  64. Darkling Beetle, Coniontis tristis
  65. Desert Broom Gallfly, Aciurina thoracica (small, wings decorated with black mottling) [lifer]
  66. Desert Stink Beetle, Eleodes scabrosus [pitted pronotum and elytra, like a Darkling]
  67. Dragonfly, Suborder: Anisoptera
  68. Dragonfly, Blue Dasher Dragonfly, Pachydiplax longipennis
  69. Dragonfly, Common Green Darner, Anax junius
  70. Dragonfly, Flame Skimmer Dragonfly, Libellula saturata
  71. Dragonfly, Sinuous Snaketail, Ophiogomphus occidentis [mostly yellow; cobra-tail] [lifer]
  72. Dragonfly, Twelve-Spotted Skimmer Dragonfly, Libellula pulchella [lifer]
  73. Dragonfly, Widow Skimmer Dragonfly, Libellula luctuosa
  74. Drone Fly, Common Drone Fly, Eristalis tenax [looks like a bee with fly eyes] [lifer]
  75. Drone Fly. European Drone Fly, Eristalis arbustorum [orange belt] [lifer]
  76. Drone Fly, Yellow-Shouldered Drone Fly, Eristalis stipator [looks like a dark honeybee with fly eyes] [lifer]
  77. Earwig, European Earwig, Forficula auricularia
  78. Echo Azure Butterfly, Celastrina echo
  79. Fire-Colored Beetle, Pedilus sp.
  80. Firefly, California Glowworm, Ellychnia californica [larvae are pink]
  81. Firefly, Dark Firefly, Pyropyga nigricans
  82. Fly, Acalyptrate Fly, Zoosubsection: Acalyptratae [medium-sized, reddish-gold with banding on abdomen] [lifer]
  83. Fly, Black Blow Fly, Phormia regina [dark blue sheen]
  84. Fly, Common Flesh Fly, Sarcophaga sp.
  85. Fly, Cricket-Parasite Nocturnal Fly, Ormia sp. [gold body, red eyes] [lifer]
  86. Fly, European Blowfly, Calliphora vicina [dark body, white spots on abdomen, red eyes]
  87. Fly, Golden Dung Fly, Scathophaga stercoraria
  88. Fly, Grass Fly, Thaumatomyia sp. [small, yellow-orange]
  89. Fly, Grass Fly, Fruit Fly, Thaumatomyia sp. [tiny, bright yellow, striped]
  90. Fly, Greenbottle Fly, Common European Greenbottle Fly, Lucilia sericata
  91. Fly, Muscoid Fly, Superfamily: Muscoidea [red eyes, wings have black dot]
  92. Fly, Narrow-Headed Marsh Fly, Helophilus fasciatus [large, hoverfly] [lifer]
  93. Fly, Tachinid Fly, Archytas sp. [lifer]
  94. Fly, Tiger Fly, Coenosia sp. [lifer]
  95. Funereal Duskywing Butterfly, Erynnis funeralis
  96. Fungus Gnat, Family: Mycetophilidae [mosquito-like]
  97. Genista Broom Moth, Uresiphita reversalis
  98. Geometer Moth, “Twig Mimic” caterpillars, Family: Geometridae
  99. Gossamer-Winged Butterfly, Family: Lycaenidae
  100. Grape Leaf Miner Moth, Phyllocnistis vitigenella [lifer]
  101. Grass Sharpshooter, Draeculacephala minerva [like a leafhopper]
  102. Gray Buckeye Butterfly, Junonia grisea
  103. Green Lacewing, Chrysopa coloradensis
  104. Harlequin Bug, Murgantia histrionica
  105. Hanging Scorpion Fly, Bittacus chlorostigma [like a large, bright yellow cranefly] [lifer]
  106. Harvestman, Protolophus singularis
  107. Harvestman, Superfamily: Phalangioidea
  108. Hoverfly, Black-Margined Flower Fly, Syrphus opinator [lifer]
  109. Hoverfly, Large-Tailed Aphideater, Eupeodes volucris
  110. Hoverfly, Margined Calligrapher, Toxomerus marginatus
  111. Hoverfly, Oblique Streaktail, Allograpta obliqua [lifer]
  112. Hoverfly, White-Bowed Smoothwing, Scaeva affinis [lifer]
  113. Hybotid Fly, Platypalpus sp. [tiny, midge-like]
  114. Ichneumonid and Braconid Wasps, Superfamily: Ichneumonoidea
  115. Jalisco Petrophila Moth, Petrophila jaliscalis [tiny, black dots long edge of hindwings]
  116. Katydid, Bush Katydid, Fork-Tailed Bush Katydid, Scudderia furcata 
  117. Kermes Scale Insect, Allokermes sp.
  118. Ladybeetle, Asian Lady Beetle, Harmonia axyridis [lots of variation]
  119. Ladybeetle, Broad-Striped Lady Beetle, Paranaemia vittigera
  120. Ladybeetle, Convergent Lady Beetle, Hippodamia convergens
  121. Ladybeetle, Four-Eyed Sigil Lady Beetle, Hyperaspis quadrioculata [lifer]
  122. Ladybeetle, Large Spotted Lady Beetle, Harmonia conformis
  123. Ladybeetle, Sigil Lady Beetles, Hyperaspis sp.
  124. Ladybeetle, Seven-Spotted Lady Beetle, Coccinella septempunctata
  125. Ladybeetle, Spotless Lady Beetle, Cycloneda sanguinea [no spots; more red than orange]
  126. Leafhopper, Euscelis sp. [tiny, brown]
  127. Leafhopper, Euscelidius sp. [ tiny, brown, known to vector phytoplasmas in cultivated vines]
  128. Leafhopper, Tribe: Empoascini
  129. Leaf-Mining Trumpet Moth, Tischeria sp.
  130. Litocala Moth, Litocala sexsignata [black and gray with eye spots on the hind wings]
  131. Live Oak Leafminer Moth, Stigmella variella 
  132. Mantis, Arizona Mantis, Stagmomantis limbata [large ootheca]
  133. March Fly, Bibio vestitus [tiny, black, elongated body]
  134. Mayfly, Order: Ephemeroptera
  135. Mayfly, Giant Mayfly, Hexagenia limbata [lifer]
  136. Metallic Wood-Boring Beetle, Acmaeodera sp.
  137. Metallic Wood-Boring Beetle, Subgenus: Melanthaxia
  138. Mugwort Weevil, Lixus fasciculatus
  139. Non-Biting Midges, Family: Chironomidae
  140. Non-Biting Midge, Cricotopus sp.
  141. Orange Hangingfly, Bittacus chlorostigma [lifer]
  142. Orange Sulphur Butterfly, Colias eurytheme
  143. Painted Lady Butterfly, Vanessa cardui
  144. Pale-Lined Angle Moth, Digrammia irrorata
  145. Paper Wasp, Black Paper Wasp, European Paper Wasp, Polistes dominula
  146. Paper Wasp, Golden Paper Wasp, Polistes aurifer
  147. Plant Bugs, Tribe: Phylini
  148. Propertius Duskywing Butterfly, Erynnis propertius
  149. Redbud Seed Weevil, Gibbobruchus mimus
  150. Red Gum Lerp Psyllid, Glycaspis brimblecombei [on eucalyptus]
  151. Robber Fly, Subfamily: Asilinae
  152. Robber Fly, Efferia albibarbis
  153. Rose Stem Miner Moth, Marmara sp.
  154. Rose Weevil, Western Rose Curculio, Merhynchites wickhami
  155. Sawfly, Pristiphora sp.
  156. Scale Insects, Superfamily: Coccoidea
  157. Scarab-Hunter Wasp, Hairy-Footed Scoliid Wasp, Dielis pilipes
  158. Shot Hole Borer, Polyphagous Shot Hole Borer Beetle, Euwallacea fornicatus sp.
  159. Small Heliothodes Moth, Heliothodes diminutive [pinkish tan with white mottling]
  160. Snakefly, Common Snakefly, Agulla sp.
  161. Soft-Winged Flower Beetle, Listrus sp.
  162. Squash Bugs, Anasa sp. [eggs on live oak]
  163. Stink Bugs, Family: Pentatomidae
  164. Sugary Lerp Psyllid, Glycaspis granulata
  165. Thrip, Subfamily: Thripinae
  166. Thrip, Tobacco Thrip, Frankiella fusca [lifer]
  167. Tick, American Dog Tick, Dermacentor variabilis
  168. Treehopper, Buffalo Treehopper, Tribe: Ceresini
  169. Treehopper, Buffalo Treehopper, Stictocephala alta
  170. Treehopper, Buffalo Treehopper, Stictocephala bisonia
  171. Treehopper, Green Treehopper, Tortistilus pacificus
  172. Water Boatman, Subfamily: Corixinae
  173. Webspinner, Oligotoma sp. [lifer]
  174. Western Boxelder Bug, Boisea rubrolineata
  175. Western Leaf-Footed Bug, Leptoglossus clypealis
  176. Western Spotted Cucumber Beetle, Diabrotica undecimpunctata undecimpunctata
  177. Western Tailed-Blue Butterfly, Cupido amyntula
  178. Western Tiger Swallowtail Butterfly, Papilio rutulus
  179. Western Tussock Moth, Orgyia vetusta
  180. Western Yellowjacket, Vespula pensylvanica
  181. Yellow Starthistle Flower Weevil, Larinus curtus

Invertebrates, Other (Last year: 7 species)

  1. Copepods, Family: Cyclopidae
  2. Garden Snail, Cornu aspersum
  3. Red Swamp Crayfish, Crawdad, Procambarus clarkii
  4. Shrimp, California Clam Shrimp, Cyzicus californicus
  5. Shrimp, Vernal Pool Tadpole Shrimp, Lepidurus packardi [lifer]

Lichen on Trees/Wood: (Last year: 48 species)

  1. Bark Rim Lichen, Lecanora chlarotera [looks like Whitewash Lichen but has apothecia]
  2. Boreal Button Lichen, Buellia disciformis [pale gray to bluish with black apothecia on wood]
  3. Brown-Eyed Wolf Lichen, Letharia columbiana
  4. Bumpy Rim-Lichen, Lecanora hybocarpa [tan to brown apothecia]
  5. Camouflage Lichen, California Camouflage Lichen, Melanelixia californica [dark green with brown apothecia, on trees]
  6. Camouflage Lichen, Lustrous Camouflage Lichen, Melanohalea exasperatula [bright green camouflage] [lifer]
  7. Candleflame Lichen, Candelaria concolor [bright yellow-orange]  
  8. Common Button Lichen, Buellia erubescens [black eyes on white]
  9. Common Greenshield Lichen, Flavoparmelia caperata
  10. Common Sunburst Lichen, Golden Shield Lichen, Xanthoria parietina [yellow-orange, on wood/trees]
  11. Crustose Pin Lichen, Pseudothelomma occidentale [on fence post, looks like a nipple lichen]
  12. Farinose Cartilage Lichen, Ramalina farinacea [like oakmoss but with very fine strands]
  13. Fluffy Dust Lichen, Lepraria finkii
  14. Frosted Lichen, Physconia sp.
  15. Frosted Rim-Lichen, Lecanora caesiorubella [white with white apothecia]
  16. Gold Dust Lichen, Chrysothrix candelaris
  17. Green Shield Lichen, Flavoparmelia caperata
  18. Hoary Rosette Lichen, Physcia aipolia [hoary, brown apothecia]
  19. Hooded Rosette Lichen, Physcia adscendens [hairs/eyelashes on the tips of the lobes]
  20. Mealy Pixie Cup, Cladonia chlorophaea
  21. Mealy Rim Lichen, Lecanora strobilina [greenish apothecia]
  22. Oakmoss Lichen, Evernia prunastri [like strap but with soredia]
  23. Oregon Sunburst Lichen, Xanthomendoza oregana [yellow/orange thallus bearing granular soredia on the tips and/or underside; looks like leaves with grainy edges]
  24. Pin-Cushion Sunburst Lichen, Polycauliona polycarpa [bright orange, apothecia, close, piled]
  25. Poplar Sunburst Lichen, Xanthomendoza hasseana [sunburst on Cottonwood]
  26. Powder-Edged Speckled Greenshield, Flavopunctelia soredica [pale green, lots of soredia]
  27. Powdered Ruffle Lichen, Parmotrema hypotropum [lifer]
  28. Rim Lichen, Lecanora carpinea
  29. Shield Lichen, Parmelia sulcate [pale gray-green, veined]
  30. Shrubby Sunburst Lichen, Polycauliona candelaria
  31. Speckled Greenshield Lichen, Flavopunctelia flaventior
  32. Strap Lichen, Western Strap Lichen, Ramalina leptocarpha [without soredia]
  33. Trumpet Lichen, Cladonia fimbriata [lifer]
  34. Tube Lichen, Imshaug’s Tube Lichen, Hypogymnia imshaugii
  35. Variable Wrinkle-Lichen, Tuckermanopsis orbata [green or brown] [lifer]
  36. Whitewash Lichen, Phlyctis argena
  37. Wolf Lichen, Letharia vulpine [bright yellow-green]

Lichen on Stone/Metal: (Last year: 22 species)

  1. Black-Eye Lichen, Tephromela atra [lifer]
  2. Black Rock Licorice Lichen, Lichinella nigritella
  3. Chiseled Sunken Disk Lichen, Circinaria contorta
  4. Cinder Lichen, Aspicilia cinerea
  5. Concentric Boulder Lichen, Porpidia crustulata [circles of black spots on rock]
  6. Crater Lichen, Diploschistes scruposus [pale gray with black craters]
  7. Cumberland Rock Shield, Xanthoparmelia cumberlandia
  8. Emery Rocktripe Lichen, Umbilicaria phaea
  9. Fluffy Dust Lichen, Lepraria finkii
  10. Green Rock-Posy, Rhizoplaca melanophthalma
  11. Pebbled Pixie Cup, Cladonia pyxidata
  12. Peppered Rock-Shield Lichen, Xanthoparmelia conspersa
  13. Pelt Lichen, Scaly Pelt Lichen, Peltigera praetextata [lifer]
  14. Rock Disk Lichen, Lecidella stigmatea [black spots]
  15. Stonewall Rim Lichen, Protoparmeliopsis muralis
  16. Wart Lichen, Verrucaria sp. [lifer]
  17. Yellow Cobblestone Lichen, Acarospora socialis
  18. Yellow Map Lichen, Rhizocarpon geographicum

Mammals: (Last year: 51 species)

  1. Beaver, American, Beaver, Castor canadensis
  2. Black-Tailed Jackrabbit, Lepus californicus
  3. California Ground Squirrel, Otospermophilus beecheyi
  4. Cat, Felis catus
  5. Cattle, Black Angus, Bos Taurus var, Black Angus
  6. Cattle, Charolais Cattle, Bos taurus var. Charolais
  7. Cattle, Guernsey Cattle, Bos taurus var. Guernsey
  8. Cattle, Hereford Cattle, Bos taurus var. Hereford
  9. Cattle, Holstein Friesian Cattle, Bos taurus var. Holstein
  10. Cattle, Jersey Cattle, Bos taurus var. Jersey
  11. Columbian Black-Tailed Deer, Odocoileus hemionus columbianus
  12. Coyote, Canis latrans
  13. Desert Cottontail, Sylvilagus audubonii
  14. Dog, Canis lupus familiaris
  15. Douglas’ Squirrel, Tamiasciurus douglasii [small brown squirrel, white belly]
  16. Eastern Fox Squirrel, Sciurus niger [rusty belly]
  17. Eastern Gray Squirrel, Sciurus carolinensis [white belly]
  18. Gopher, Botta’s Pocket Gopher, Thomomys bottae [burrows, mounds]
  19. Mule Deer, Odocoileus hemionus
  20. Otter, North American River Otter, Lontra canadensis
  21. Raccoon, Common Raccoon, Procyon lotor
  22. Sheep, Ovis aries
  23. Vole, California Vole, Microtus californicus
  24. Western Gray Squirrel, Sciurus griseus

Pathogens/Bacteria: (Last year: 12 species)

  1. Black Knot, Apiosporina morbosa [fungal growth] [lifer]
  2. Blackberry RustGymnoconia nitens
  3. Blackberry Orange Rust, Gymnoconia peckiana
  4. Hollyhock Rust, Puccinia malvacearum
  5. Rose Rosette Disease, Rose rosette emaravirus [carried by mites]
  6. Rose Rust, Phragmidium tuberculatum
  7. White Blister Rust Disease, Wilsoniana bliti [looks like white plaque on the leaves] [lifer]

Plants, Flowers, Trees: (Last year: 694 species)

  1. African Flag,  Chasmanthe floribunda
  2. Alder, White Alder, Alnus rhombifolia
  3. Alkali Heliotrope, Heliotropium curassavicum
  4. Alkali Mallow, Malvella leprosa [lifer]
  5. Almond Tree, Prunus dulcis
  6. Aloe, Candelabra Aloe, Aloe arborescens
  7. American Yellowrocket, Barbarea orthoceras [lifer]
  8. Annual Honesty, Money Plant, Lunaria annua
  9. Artichoke Thistle, Cardoon, Cynara cardunculus
  10. Arundo, Giant Reed, Arundo donax
  11. Ash, Oregon Ash, Fraxinus latifolia
  12. Ash, Velvet Ash, Fraxinus velutina
  13. Asphodel Plant, Asphodelus sp. [long heavy bracts of round seed pods]
  14. Azolla, Water Fern, Azolla filiculoides
  15. Balsamroot, Carey’s Balsamroot, Balsamorhiza careyana
  16. Barberries, Berberis sp.
  17. Barberry, Shining Netvein Barberry, Berberis dictyota
  18. Basswood Tree, Tilia americana
  19. Bay Laurel, California Bay, Umbellularia californica
  20. Bear’s Breeches, Acanthus mollis
  21. Beavertail Cactus, Indian Fig Opuntia, Opuntia ficus-indica
  22. Bedstraw, Velcro Grass, Cleavers, Galium aparine
  23. Bedstraw, Galium pilosum [much  larger than Galium aparine seeds are pinkish]
  24. Bigleaf Maple Tree, Acer macrophyllum
  25. Bindweed, Convolvulus sp.
  26. Bindweed, Field Bindweed, Convolvulus arvensis
  27. Bindweed, Ground Morning Glory, Convolvulus sabatius mauritanicus [purple-blue flowers]
  28. Bird’s-Eye Gilia, Gilia tricolor
  29. Bird’s-Eye Speedwell, Veronica persica
  30. Bird’s Foot Cliffbrake, Pellaea mucronata
  31. Bisnaga, Visnaga daucoides
  32. Bittercress, Hairy Bittercress, Cardamine hirsuta
  33. Black Chokeberry, Aronia melanocarpa
  34. Black Locust Tree, Robinia pseudoacacia
  35. Black Mulberry, Morus nigra
  36. Black Mustard, Brassica nigra
  37. Black Walnut, Eastern Black Walnut, Juglans nigra
  38. Black Walnut, Northern California Black Walnut, Juglans hindsii
  39. Blackberry, Armenian Blackberry, Rubus armeniacus [red canes]
  40. Blackberry, California Blackberry, Trailing Blackberry, Rubus ursinus [pale green canes]
  41. Blessed Milk Thistle, Silybum marianum
  42. Bloody Crane’s-Bill, Geranium sanguineum
  43. Blow Wives, Achyrachaena mollis
  44. Blue Dicks, Depterostemon capitatus
  45. Blue Dicks, Dipterostemon capitatus capitatus [vernal pool]
  46. Blue Elderberry, Sambucus nigra cerulea
  47. Blue Statice, Limonium sinuatum
  48. Bluewitch Nightshade, Solanum umbelliferum
  49. Borage, Borago officinalis
  50. Boxelder, Box Elder Tree, Acer negundo
  51. Brass Buttons, Cotula coronopifolia
  52. Bristly Oxtongue, Helminthotheca echioides
  53. Broad-Leaved Stonecrop, Sedum spathulifolium
  54. Broad-Leaved Sweet Pea, Lathyrus latifolius
  55. Brodiaea, Dwarf Brodiaea, Brodiaea terrestris terrestris [vernal pool] [lifer]
  56. Broom, Scotch Broom, Cytisus scoparius
  57. Broom, Sweet Broom, Cytisus x spachianus
  58. Brown Fritillary, Fritillaria micrantha
  59. Buckbrush, Ceanothus cuneatus
  60. Buckwheat, Long-Stemmed Buckwheat, Eriogonum elongatum [tiny flowers]
  61. Buckwheat, Sulfur Buckwheat, Eriogonum umbellatum
  62. Bull Thistle, Cirsium vulgare
  63. Bunya-Bunya Pine, Araucaria bidwillii [looks like Monkey-Puzzle]
  64. Bur Parsley, Anthriscus caucalis
  65. Buttercup, Ranunculus sp.
  66. Buttercup, Rough-Fruited Buttercup, Ranunculus muricatus
  67. Buttercup, Western Buttercup, Ranunculus occidentalis
  68. Butterfly Bush, Buddleja davidii
  69. Buttonbush, Cephalanthus occidentalis
  70. California Buckeye Chestnut Tree, Aesculus californica
  71. California Bulrush, Schoenoplectus californicus
  72. California Flannelbush, Fremontodendron californicum
  73. California Mugwort, Artemisia douglasiana
  74. California Pipevine, Dutchman’s Pipe, Aristolochia californica
  75. California Saxifrage, Micranthes californica
  76. California Sweetshrub, Spice Bush, Calycanthus occidentalis
  77. California Sycamore, Western Sycamore, Platanus racemose
  78. California Wild Grape, Vitis californica
  79. Calla Lily, Zantedeschia aethiopica
  80. Callery Pear, Pyrus calleryana
  81. Cape Honey Flower, Melianthus major
  82. Cat’s Ear, Smooth Cat’s Ear, Hypochaeris glabra
  83. Catalpa, Northern Catalpa, Catalpa speciosa
  84. Cattail, Broad-Leaved Cattail, Typha latifolia
  85. Cattail, Narrowleaf Cattail, Typha angustifolia
  86. Ceanothus, Concha Ceanothus, Ceanothus concha, Ceanothus impressus + Ceanothus papillosus var. roweanus
  87. Ceanothus, Deerbrush Ceanothus, Ceanothus integerrimus
  88. Ceanothus, Mahala Mat, Ceanothus prostrates
  89. Centuary, Slender Centaury, Centaurium tenuiflorum [pink flowers]
  90. Chamomile, Stinking Chamomile, Anthemis cotula
  91. Checker Lily, Fritillaria affinis
  92. Cheeseweed Mallow, Malva parviflora
  93. Chicory, Cichorium intybus
  94. Chickweed, Common Chickweed, Stellaria media
  95. Chinaberry Tree, Melia azedarach
  96. Chinese Houses, Purple Chinese Houses, Collinsia heterophylla
  97. Chinese Pistache, Pistacia chinensis
  98. Chinese Quince, Chaenomeles lagenaria [white or pink flowers]
  99. Clematis, Western Virgin’s Bower, Clematis ligusticifolia
  100. Clockweed, Oenothera lindheimeri [lifer]
  101. Clover, Bearded Clover, Trifolium barbigerum [vernal pool]
  102. Clover, Bur Clover, Medicago polymorpha
  103. Clover, Crimson Clover, Trifolium incarnatum
  104. Clover, Rose Clover, Trifolium hirtum
  105. Clover, Strawberry Clover, Trifolium fragiferum
  106. Clover, Tomcat Clover, Trifolium willdenovii
  107. Coastal Rosemary, Westringia fruticosa
  108. Cobwebby Thistle, Cirsium occidentale
  109. Coffeeberry, California Buckthorn, Frangula californica
  110. Columbine, Aquilegia sp.
  111. Columbine, Western Columbine, Aquilegia formosa
  112. Common Daisy, Lawn Daisy, Bellis perennis
  113. Common Hawkweed, Hieracium lachenalii
  114. Common Hedge Parsley, Torilis arvensis [tiny flowers, spiny seeds are pinkish]
  115. Common Madia, Madia elegans elegans
  116. Common Selfheal, Prunella vulgaris
  117. Common Spikeweed, Centromadia pungens
  118. Common St. John’s Wort, Hypericum perforatum
  119. Coneflower, Topeka Purple Coneflower, Echinacea atrorubens
  120. Coyote Brush, Baccharis pilularis
  121. Creamcups, Platystemon californicus
  122. Creeping Myoporum, Myoporum parvifolium [groundcover, small whiteflowers]
  123. Creeping Woodsorrel, Oxalis corniculata
  124. Crevice Alumroot, Heuchera micrantha
  125. Cudweed, Jersey Cudweed, Helichrysum luteoalbum
  126. Daffodil, Wild Daffodil, Narcissus pseudonarcissus
  127. Dame’s Rocket, Hesperis matronalis [purple flowers in bouquets]
  128. Dandelion, Common Dandelion, Taraxacum officinale
  129. Deerweed, Acmispon glaber
  130. Deodar Cedar, Cedrus deodara
  131. Dock, Clustered Dock, Rumex conglomeratus
  132. Dock, Curly Dock, Rumex crispus
  133. Dock, Tall Dock, Rumex altissimus
  134. Dock, Willow Dock, Rumex salicifolius
  135. Douglas Fir, Pseudotsuga menziesii
  136. Dove’s-Foot Crane’s-Bill, Geranium molle
  137. Downingia, Flatface Calicoflower, Downingia pulchella
  138. Downingia, Maroonspot Calicoflower, Downingia concolor [vernal pool]
  139. Downy Thornapple, Jimsonweed, Datura innoxia
  140. Duckweed, Common Duckweed, Lemna minor
  141. Dudleya, Canyon Live-Forever, Dudleya cymosa
  142. Elegant Clarkia, Clarkia unguiculata [red line on leaves when young]
  143. Elephant’s-Ears, Bergenia crassifolia
  144. Elm Tree, Field Elm Tree, Ulmus minor
  145. English Walnut, Juglans regia
  146. Eucalyptus, River Redgum, Eucalyptus camaldulensis
  147. Eurasian Water-Milfoil, Myriophyllum spicatum
  148. Fennel, Bronze Fennel, Florence Fennel, Foeniculum vulgare dulce
  149. Fennel, Giant Fennel, Ferula communis
  150. Fennel, Sweet Fennel, Foeniculum vulgare
  151. Fern, Goldback Fern, Pentagramma triangularis
  152. Fern, California Maidenhair Fern, Adiantum jordanii
  153. Fern, California Polypody, Polypodium californicum
  154. Fern, Common Bracken, Pteridium aquilinum
  155. Fern, Lace Lip Fern, Myriopteris gracillima
  156. Fern, Narrowleaf Sword Fern, Polystichum imbricans
  157. Fern, Western Sword Fern, Polystichum munitum
  158. Fiddleneck, Bristly Fiddleneck, Amsinckia tessellata
  159. Fiddleneck, Common Fiddleneck, Amsinckia menziesii
  160. Field Bindweed, Convolvulus arvensis
  161. Field Mustard, Brassica rapa
  162. Fig, Common Fig, Ficus carica
  163. Fleabane, Coulter’s Fleabane, Erigeron coulteri [pale purple petals, yellow center]
  164. Floating Primrose-Willow, Ludwigia peploides
  165. Floating Water Primrose, Ludwigia peploides ssp. peploides
  166. Forget-Me-Not, Bay Forget-Me-Not, Myosotis laxa [tiny pale blue flowers]
  167. Fortnight Lily, Dietes grandiflora
  168. Freesia, White Kammetjie, Freesia leichtlinii alba
  169. Fremont’s Cottonwood, Populus fremontii
  170. Fringepod, Mountain Fringepod, Thysanocarpus laciniatus
  171. Fringepod, Ribbed Fringepod, Thysanocarpus radians
  172. Fringepod, Sand Fringepod, Thysanocarpus curvipes [pinholes]
  173. Fuchsiaflower Gooseberry, Ribes speciosum
  174. Garlic, Naples Garlic, Allium neapolitanum [like white onion flowers]
  175. Giraffe’s Head, Henbit Deadnettle, Lamium amplexicaule
  176. Gladioli, Gladiolus sp.
  177. Globe Lily, Diogenes’ Lantern, Calochortus amabilis [yellow or white]
  178. Globe Lily, White Globe Lily, Calochortus albus
  179. Goldenrod, Coast Goldenrod, Solidago spathulata
  180. Goldfields, Lasthenia sp.
  181. Goldfields, California Goldfields, Lasthenia californica
  182. Goldfields, Fremont’s Goldfields, Lasthenia fremontii
  183. Goldfields, Smooth Goldfields, Lasthenia glaberrima [tall]
  184. Goldwire, Hypericum concinnum
  185. Grasses, Family: Poaceae
  186. Grasses, Annual Blue-Eyed Grass, Sisyrinchium rosulatum [tiny flowers can be white or blue]
  187. Grasses, Bristly Dogtail Grass, Cynosurus echinatus
  188. Grasses, Bulbous Bluegrass, Poa bulbosa
  189. Grasses, Bermuda Grass, Cynodon dactylon
  190. Grasses, California Melic, Melica californica
  191. Grasses, Carolina Canarygrass, Phalaris caroliniana
  192. Grasses, Common Barley, Hordeum vulgare
  193. Grasses, Common Soft Brome, Bromus hordeaceus
  194. Grasses, Dallis Grass, Paspalum dilatatum
  195. Grasses, Flowering Oloptum, Oloptum sp.
  196. Grasses, Fountain Grass, Cenchrus setaceus
  197. Grasses, Italian Ryegrass, Lolium multiflorum
  198. Grasses, Lesser Canary Grass, Phalaris minor
  199. Grasses, Little Quaking Grass, Briza minor
  200. Grasses, Mediterranean Hair-Grass, Rostraria cristata
  201. Grasses, Purple Needlegrass, Nassella pulchra
  202. Grasses, Rabbitfoot Grass, Polypogon monspeliensis
  203. Grasses, Ripgut Brome, Bromus diandrus
  204. Grasses, Saltgrass, Distichlis spicata
  205. Grasses, Silver Hairgrass, Aira caryophyllea
  206. Grasses, Wall Barley, Hordeum murinum
  207. Grasses, Wild Oat, Avena fatua
  208. Grevillea, Juniper Leaved Grevillea, Grevillea juniperina [spidery,orange]
  209. Grevillea, Rosemary Grevillea, Grevillea rosmarinifolia [spidery, red]
  210. Groundsel, Common Groundsel, Senecio vulgaris
  211. Gumweed, Great Valley Gumweed, Grindelia camporum
  212. Hairy Hawkbit, Leontodon saxatilis
  213. Hairypink, Pink Grass, Windmill Pink, Petrorhagia dubia
  214. Hellebore, Stinking Hellebore, Helleborus foetidus
  215. Hillside Woodland Star, Lithophragma heterophyllum
  216. Holly, European Holly, Hedgehog Holly, Ilex aquifolium
  217. Hollyhock, Alcea rosea
  218. Hollyleaf Redberry, Rhamnus ilicifolia [buckthorn]
  219. Honeysuckles, Lonicera sp.
  220. Honeywort, Blue Shrimp Plant, Cerinthe major ssp. purpurascens [purple]
  221. Horsetail, Rough Horsetail, Equisetum hyemale
  222. Horsetail, Smooth Horsetail, Equisetum laevigatum
  223. Hyssop Loosestrife, Lythrum hyssopifolia [tiny pink flowers]
  224. Incense Cedar, California Incense Cedar, Calocedrus decurrens
  225. Iris, Iris sp.
  226. Iris, Bearded Iris, Iris × germanica
  227. Iris, Douglas Iris, Iris douglasiana
  228. Iris, Rainbow Iris, Iris hartwegii
  229. Iris, Stinking Iris, Iris foetidissima [bright orange seeds]
  230. Iris, Yellow Iris, Iris pseudacorus
  231. Italian Stone Pine, Umbrella Pine, Pinus pinea [small cones, 2 per fascicle]
  232. Italian Thistle, Carduus pycnocephalus
  233. Ithuriel’s Spear, Triteleia laxa
  234. Jack-in-the-Pulpit, Dragon Arum, Dracunculus vulgaris [very large, purple]
  235. Japanese Aralia, Fatsia japonica [stalks of white flowers, huge leaves; kind of looks like coffee to me]
  236. Jewelflower, Mountain Jewelflower, Streptanthus tortuosus [lifer]
  237. Johnnytuck, Butter-and-Eggs, Triphysaria eriantha eriantha [red stems]
  238. Johnnytuck, Vernal Pool Indian Paintbrush, Castilleja campestris  campestris [green stems]
  239. Jointed Charlock, Raphanus raphanistrum
  240. Larkspur, Red Larkspur, Delphinium nudicaule
  241. Larkspur, Zigzag Larkspur, Delphinium patens [dark purple-blue]
  242. Laurustinus Viburnum, Viburnum tinus [bunches of pink buds that open to small white flowers]
  243. Lavender, Common Lavender, Lavandula angustifolia
  244. Lavender, Desert Lavender, Condea emoryi
  245. Lavender, Spanish Lavender, Lavandula pedunculata
  246. Lilac, Common Lilac, Syringa vulgaris
  247. Lomatium, Biscuitroot, Lomatium sp.
  248. Lomatium, Foothill Desert-Parsley, Lomatium utriculatum
  249. Love-in-a-Mist. Nigella damascena
  250. Lupine, Arroyo Lupine, Lupinus succulentus
  251. Lupine, Chick Lupine, Lupinus microcarpus [white or yellow]
  252. Lupine, Grape Soda Lupine, Lupinus excubitus [paler purple-blue with yellow tinge]
  253. Lupine, Miniature Lupine, Lupinus bicolor
  254. Lupine, Narrow-Leaved Lupine, Lupinus angustifolius [lifer]
  255. Magnolia, Saucer Magnolia, Magnolia × soulangeana [pink flowers]
  256. Manroot, California Manroot, Bigroot, Marah fabaceus
  257. Manroot, Coastal Manroot, Marah oregana [elongated pods, seen in Solano County]
  258. Manyflower Marshpennywort, Hydrocotyle umbellate [round leaves, small white flowers on stalk]
  259. Manzanita, Arctostaphylos sp.
  260. Manzanita, Greenleaf Manzanita, Arctostaphylos patula
  261. Manzanita, Mariposa Manzanita, Arctostaphylos viscida mariposa [a subspecies of Whiteleaf Manzanita]
  262. Manzanita, Whiteleaf Manzanita, Arctostaphylos viscida
  263. Marguerite, Dimorphotheca polyptera
  264. Max Chrysanthemum, Leucanthemum maximum
  265. Meadowfoam, Rosy Douglas Meadowfoam, Limnanthes douglasii rosea [vernal pool]
  266. Mediterranean Cypress, Cupressus sempervirens
  267. Milkmaids, Cardamine californica
  268. Milkweed, Showy Milkweed, Asclepias speciosa
  269. Miner’s Lettuce, Claytonia perfoliata
  270. Miner’s Lettuce, Streambank Springbeauty, Claytonia parviflora
  271. Mistletoe, Broadleaf Mistletoe, Phoradendron macrophyllum
  272. Monkeyflower, Kellogg’s Monkeyflower, Diplacus kelloggii [pink] [lifer]
  273. Monkeyflower, Orange Bush Monkeyflower, Diplacus aurantiacus
  274. Monkeyflower, Seep Monkeyflower, Erythranthe guttata [yellow]
  275. Moss, Bristly Haircap Moss, Polytrichum piliferum [like little porcupines]
  276. Moss, Clustered Feather-Moss, Rhynchostegium confertum
  277. Moss, Crisped Pincushion, Ulota crispa
  278. Moss, Fountain Apple-Moss, Philonotis fontana
  279. Moss, Lyell’s Bristle-Moss, Pulvigera lyellii
  280. Moss, Nuttall’s Homalothecium Moss, Homalothecium nuttallii [looks like thread]
  281. Moss, Rough-Stalked Feather-Moss, Brachythecium rutabulum
  282. Moss, Silky Wall Feather-Moss, Homalothecium sericeum
  283. Moss, Silvery Bryum, Bryum argenteum
  284. Moss, Spoon-Leaved Moss, Bryoandersonia illecebra
  285. Moss, Turf-Forming Moss, Trichostomum sp.
  286. Mountain Misery, Chamaebatia foliolosa [fern-like leaves]
  287. Mule Fat, Baccharis salicifolia
  288. Mule’s Ears, Gray Mule-Ears, Wyethia helenioides
  289. Mule’s Ears, Narrowleaf Mule-Ears, Wyethia angustifolia
  290. Mule’s Ears, Smooth Mule-Ears, Wyethia glabra
  291. Mullein, Great Mullein, Verbascum thapsus
  292. Mullein, Moth Mullein, Verbascum blattaria [thin stick, white or yellow]
  293. Mullein, Turkey Mullein, Doveweed, Croton setiger
  294. Narrow-Fruited Water-Starwort, Callitriche palustris
  295. Oak, Blue Oak, Quercus douglasii
  296. Oak, California Black Oak, Quercus kelloggii
  297. Oak, Canyon Live Oak, Quercus chrysolepis [dark on top, light underneath] [lifer]
  298. Oak, Coast Live Oak, Quercus agrifolia
  299. Oak, Cork Oak, Quercus suber
  300. Oak, Interior Live Oak, Quercus wislizeni
  301. Oak, Holm Oak, Quercus ilex [soft leaves, lighter on back]
  302. Oak, Hungarian Oak, Quercus frainetto
  303. Oak, Valley Oak, Quercus lobata
  304. Oleander, Nerium oleander
  305. Oregon Grape, Berberis aquifolium
  306. Queen Anne’s Lace, Daucus carota
  307. Owl’s Clover, Purple Owl’s-Clover, Castilleja exserta var. exserta
  308. Oxalis, Bermuda Buttercup, Oxalis pes-caprae
  309. Pacific Aster, Symphyotrichum chilense
  310. Pacific Bleeding Heart, Dicentra formosa
  311. Pacific Dogwood, Cornus nuttallii
  312. Pacific False Bindweed, Calystegia purpurata
  313. Pacific Hound’s Tongue, “Dog Lick”, Adelinia grande
  314. Pacific Pea, Lathyrus vestitus
  315. Pacific Poison Oak, Toxicodendron diversilobum
  316. Paperwhite, Narcissus papyraceus
  317. Paintbrush, Harsh Indian Paintbrush, Castilleja hispida
  318. Paintbrush, Woolly Indian Paintbrush, Castilleja foliolosa
  319. Pale Dewplant, Drosanthemum floribundum
  320. Paris Daisy, Euryops chrysanthemoides
  321. Parrot’s Feather, Myriophyllum aquaticum [water plant]
  322. Pennyroyal, Mentha pulegium
  323. Penstemon, Mountain Blue Penstemon, Penstemon laetus
  324. Pepperweed, Lepidium sp.
  325. Pepperweed, Broadleaved Pepperweed, Lepidium latifolium
  326. Pepperweed, Tall Whitetop, Lepidium draba
  327. Periwinkle, Greater Periwinkle, Vinca major
  328. Persian Silk Tree, Mimosa Tree, Albizia julibrissin
  329. Phacelia, Mountain Phacelia, Phacelia imbricata [white]
  330. Phacelia, Virgate Scorpionweed, Phacelia heterophylla
  331. Pineapple Guava, Feijoa, Feijoa sellowiana
  332. Pineappleweed, Chamomilla suaveolens
  333. Pinkladies, Oenothera speciosa
  334. Plantain, Ribwort Plantain, Plantago lanceolata
  335. Poison Hemlock, Conium maculatum
  336. Poison Oak, Pacific Poison Oak, Western Poison Oak, Toxicodendron diversilobum
  337. Ponderosa Pine, Pinus ponderosa [three needles]
  338. Popcorn Flower, Plagiobothrys sp.
  339. Popcorn Flower, Greene’s Popcorn Flower, Plagiobothrys greenei [super tiny, vernal pool] [lifer]
  340. Popcorn Flower, Rusty Popcornflower, Plagiobothrys nothofulvus
  341. Poppy, California Poppy, Eschscholzia californica
  342. Poppy, Coulter’s Matilija Poppy, Romneya coulteri [large, white, colorful center]
  343. Poppy, Field Poppy, Tufted Poppy, Eschscholzia caespitosa
  344. Poppy, Frying Pan Poppy, Eschscholzia lobbii
  345. Portuguese Squill, Scilla peruviana
  346. Prettyface, Foothill Triteleia, Triteleia ixioides scabra
  347. Prickly Lettuce, Lactuca serriola
  348. Prostrate Knotweed, Polygonum aviculare [has tiny white flowers on the stem]
  349. Purple Salsify, Tragopogon porrifolius
  350. Purpletop Vervain, Verbena incompta
  351. Pyracantha, Firethorn, Pyracantha coccinea
  352. Pyracantha, Narrowleaf Firethorn, Pyracantha angustifolia
  353. Q-Tips, Micropus californicus
  354. Red Fir Tree, Abies magnifica
  355. Red Hot Poker, Kniphofia uvaria
  356. Red-Flowering Currant, Ribes sanguineum
  357. Red Sand-Spurrey, Spergularia rubra[mat, purple flowers]
  358. Redvein Abutilon, Callianthe picta
  359. Red Maids, Calandrinia menziesii
  360. Red Valerian, Centranthus ruber
  361. Rice, Annual Wild Rice, Zizania aquatica
  362. River Bulrush, Bolboschoenus fluviatilis
  363. Rocketsalad, Eruca vesicaria [like charlock but very tall, in thin colums] [lifer]
  364. Roldana, Roldana sp. [clusters of medium-sized yellow flowers]
  365. Rose, Rosa sp.
  366. Rose, California Wild Rose, Rosa californica [pink]
  367. Rose, Dog Rose, Rosa canina [white]
  368. Rose, Hoary Rock-Rose, Cistus creticus
  369. Rose, Multiflora Rose, Rosa multiflora [multiple white flowers]
  370. Rose, Sweet-Brier Rose, Rosa rubiginosa [pink, multi]
  371. Rose, Woods’ Rose, Rosa woodsia [dark pink]
  372. Rose-of-Sharon, Hypericum calycinum [a kind of St. John’s Wort]
  373. Rosemary, Salvia rosmarinus
  374. Rosilla, Sneezeweed, Helenium puberulum
  375. Rush, Canada Rush, Juncus canadensis [small flowering heads at the top of the stem]
  376. Rush, Soft Rush, Juncus effusus [flowering heads midstem]
  377. Sacred Lotus, Nelumbo nucifera
  378. Safflower, Carthamus tinctorius
  379. Sage, Baby Sage, Salvia microphylla
  380. Sage, Black Sage, Salvia mellifera [white flowers, kind of looks like horehound]
  381. Sage, Cleveland Sage, Salvia clevelandii
  382. Sage, Garden Sage, Salvia officinalis [purple and pale purple-pink]
  383. Sage, Hummingbird Sage, Salvia spathacea
  384. Sage, Jerusalem Sage, Phlomis fruticosa
  385. Sage, Meadow Sage, Salvia pratensis
  386. Sage, Purple Sage, Salvia leucophylla [kind of looks like Cleveland, but paler and finer]
  387. Saltbush, Big Saltbush, Atriplex lentiformis
  388. Sanicle, Pacific Sanicle, Sanicula crassicaulis [yellow flowers, stinky]
  389. Sanicle, Purple Sanicle, Sanicula bipinnatifida
  390. Sanicle, Tuberous Sanicle, Sanicula tuberosa [yellow]
  391. Scarlet Kammetjie, Freesia laxa [pink,6-petals,redblush on bottom 3]
  392. Scarlet Pimpernel, Lysimachia arvensis
  393. Scrambling Pohuehue, Muehlenbeckia complexa [sort of looks like a fern with round leaves]
  394. Sea Mallow, Malva subovata [kind of looks like hibiscus]
  395. Sea Mullia, Muilla maritima [white flowers, sort of like onion] [lifer]
  396. Seablush, Shortspur Seablush, Plectritis congesta [white or pink, single head]
  397. Sheep’s Sorrel, Rumex acetosella
  398. Shepherd’s-Purse, Capsella bursa-pastoris
  399. Shining Pepperweed, Lepidium nitidum
  400. Shooting Star, Henderson’s Shooting Star, Primula hendersonii
  401. Slough Sedge, Carex obnupta
  402. Small-Flowered Catchfly, Silene gallica
  403. Swamp Smartweed, Persicaria hydropiperoides
  404. Smokebush, Smoke Tree, Cotinus coggygria
  405. Snowberry, Common Snowberry, Symphoricarpos albus
  406. Sow Thistle, Common Sow-Thistle, Sonchus oleraceus
  407. Spanish Bluebell, Hyacinthoides hispanica
  408. Spanish Clover, Acmispon americanus [looks like baby lotus]
  409. Spring Starflower, Ipheion uniflorum
  410. Spurge, Eggleaf Spurge, Euphorbia oblongata
  411. Spurge, Mediterranean Spurge, Euphorbia characias
  412. Spurge, Petty Spurge, Euphorbia peplus
  413. Squarestem Spikerush, Eleocharis quadrangulata
  414. Sticky Mouse-Ear Chickweed, Cerastium glomeratum
  415. Stinging Nettle, Urtica dioica
  416. Stonecrop, Broad-Leaved Stonecrop, Sedum spathulifolium
  417. Stork’s Bill, Mediterranean Stork’s-Bill, Erodium botrys
  418. Stork’s Bill, Musk Stork’s-Bill, Erodium moschatum
  419. Stork’s Bill, Redstem Stork’s-Bill, Erodium cicutarium
  420. Sugar Pine Tree, Pinus lambertiana
  421. Summer Snowflake, Leucojum aestivum [like lily of the valley with green spots]
  422. Sunflower, California Sunflower, Helianthus californicus
  423. Sunflower, Common Sunflower, Helianthus annuus
  424. Sunflower, Common Woolly Sunflower, Eriophyllum lanatum
  425. Tall Flatsedge, Cyperus eragrostis
  426. Tamarisk, Saltcedar, Tamarix ramosissima
  427. Tarweeds, Madia sp.
  428. Tarweed, Fitch’s Tarweed, Centromadia fitchii [yellow, no thorns, smells like lemons]
  429. Teasel, Wild Teasel, Dipsacus fullonum
  430. Tobacco, Coyote Tobacco, Flowering Tobacco, Nicotiana attenuata
  431. Tobacco, Tree Tobacco, Nicotiana glauca
  432. Torrent Sedge, Carex nudata
  433. Tower-of-Jewels, Giant Viper’s-Bugloss, Echium pininana
  434. Toyon, Heteromeles arbutifolia
  435. Tree-Anemone, Carpenteria californica
  436. Tree-of-Heaven, Ailanthus altissima
  437. Trefoil, Bird’s Foot Trefoil, Lotus corniculatus
  438. Trefoil, Chilean Trefoil, Acmispon wrangelianus [vernal pool]
  439. Trembling Aspen, Populus tremuloides [white bark]
  440. Trillium, Giant White Wakerobin, Trillium albidum
  441. Tule, Common Tule, Schoenoplectus acutus
  442. Turkey Tangle Frogfruit, Phyla nodiflora
  443. Turkish Pine, Pinus brutia [2 fasicles]
  444. Twining Snakelily, Dichelostemma volubile
  445. Valley Tassels, Castilleja attenuata
  446. Vetch, Common Vetch, Vicia sativa [pink flowers]
  447. Vetch, Hairy Vetch, Vicia villosa
  448. Violet, California Golden Violet, Viola pedunculata
  449. Violet, Pine Violet, Viola lobata [lifer]
  450. Wallflower, Western Wallflower, Erysimum capitatum
  451. Warrior’s Plume, Pedicularis densiflora
  452. Water-Cress, Nasturtium sp.
  453. Wavy-Leafed Soap Plant, Soaproot, Chlorogalum pomeridianum
  454. Wax-Leaf Ligustrum, Ligustrum japonicum
  455. Western Dwarf Mistletoe, Arceuthobium campylopodum
  456. Western Hoptree, Ptelea crenulata
  457. Western Redbud, Cercis occidentalis
  458. Western Solomon’s Plume, Maianthemum racemosum amplexicaule
  459. Western Stoneseed, Lithospermum ruderale
  460. Western Waterleaf, Hydrophyllum occidentale [looks like phacelia
  461. White Brodiaea, Triteleia hyacinthina [lifer]
  462. White Fir, Abies concolor
  463. White Horehound, Marrubium vulgare
  464. White Meadowfoam, Limnanthes alba
  465. White Mulberry, Morus alba
  466. White Nemophila, Nemophila heterophylla
  467. White Sweetclover, Melilotus albus
  468. White Wall-Rocket, Diplotaxis erucoides
  469. Wild Celery, Angelica sp.
  470. Wild Licorice, Glycyrrhiza lepidota [lifer]
  471. Wild Mustard, Sinapis arvensis
  472. Wild Radish, Raphanus sativus
  473. Willow, Arroyo Willow, Salix lasiolepis
  474. Willow, Coyote Willow, Salix exigua
  475. Willow, Goodding’s Willow, Salix gooddingii
  476. Willow, Interior Sandbar Willow, Salix interior
  477. Willow, Scouler’s Willow, Salix scouleriana [silvery, feathery catkins]
  478. Willows, Salix sp.
  479. Woodland Strawberry, Fragaria vesca [lifer]
  480. Woolly Hedgenettle, Stachys byzantina
  481. Woolly Marbles, Low Woolly Marbles, Psilocarphus brevissimus
  482. Woolly Marbles, Slender Woolly-Marbles, Psilocarphus tenellus [lifer]
  483. Yarrow, Common Yarrow, Achillea millefolium
  484. Yarrow, Fern-leaf Yarrow, Achillea filipendulina [yellow]
  485. Yellow Bird-of-Paradise Shrub, Erythrostemon gilliesii
  486. Yellow Carpet, Blennosperma nabium var.nanum [tiny yellow flower with white pollen]
  487. Yellow Star-Thistle, Centaurea solstitialis
  488. Yellow Star-Tulip, Calochortus monophyllus [fuzzy throat]
  489. Yellow Sweetclover, Small Melilot, Melilotus indicus
  490. Yerba Santa, California Yerba Santa, Eriodictyon californicum
  491. Yew Tree, Taxus sp.

Reptiles and Amphibians: (Last year: 32 species)

  1. Frog, American Bullfrog, Lithobates catesbeianus
  2. Frog, Pacific Treefrog, Chorus Frog, Pseudacris regilla
  3. Northern Pacific Rattlesnake, Crotalus oreganus oreganus
  4. Pacific Pond Turtle, Western Pond Turtle, Actinemys marorata
  5. Red-Eared Slider Turtle, Trachemys scripta elegans
  6. River Cooter Turtle, Pseudemys concinna
  7. Skink, Western Skink, Plestiodon skiltonianus [juveniles have a blue tail] [lifer]
  8. Western Fence Lizard, Blue Belly, Sceloporus occidentalis


Other Vocabulary:

  • Apothecia: [a-poth-EH-cee-ah] concave cup formations on lichen that bear the spores; asocarp
  • Bilateral Gynandromorph: an organism that contains both male and female characteristics that can be distinguished through sexual dimorphism. Usually seen in moths, butterflies, other insects and birds.
  • Cilia: outgrowths on the thallus of lichen that look like eyelashes or tentacles
  • Crown Shyness: gaps in the canopy between trees in the forest that allow for sunlight to get through, and help the trees “social distance” to help neighboring trees to avoid infections and infestations.
  • Fasciation: also known as cresting, a relatively rare condition of abnormal growth in vascular plants in which the growing tip which normally is concentrated around a single point and produces approximately cylindrical tissue, instead becomes elongated perpendicularly to the direction of growth, thus producing flattened, ribbon-like, crested (or “cristate”), or elaborately contorted, tissue.
  • Inquiline: an animal exploiting the living space of another, e.g. an insect that lays its eggs in a gall produced by another (not the same as parasite because they don’t necessarily adversely affect the host.)
  • Intergrade: There are two types of intergradation: Primary intergradation: Occurs in cases were two subspecies are connected via one or more intermediate populations, each of which are in turn intermediate to their adjacent populations and exhibit more or less the same amount of variability as any other population within the species. Adjacent populations and subspecies are subject to cline intergradation, and in these situations it is usually taken for granted that the clines are causally related to environmental gradients. Secondary intergradation: When contact between a geographically isolated subspecies is reestablished with the main body of the species or with another isolate subspecies, interbreeding takes place as long as the isolate has not yet evolved an effective set of isolating mechanisms. Consequently, a relatively distinct zone or belt of hybridization will develop depending on the degree of genetic and phenotypic difference that was achieved by the previously isolated subspecies.
  • Isidia: [EYE-sid-ee-ah] ; small outgrowths of the thallus, from about 50 micrometres to a millimetre or so in length. They contain both fungal hyphae and photobiont cells and vary in shape, depending on species, from bulbous to cylindrical or branched, sometimes even coralloid .
  • Osmeteria: the “horns” on the head of swallowtail caterpillars. “…The everted organ resembles a fleshy forked tongue (not unlike a snake tongue)… [and emits] a foul, disagreeable odor which serves to repel ants, small spiders, and mantids…”
  • Soredia: [SORE-dee-ah] powdery grainy-looking balls composed of fungal hyphae wrapped around cyanobacteria or green algae on lichen; asexual reproduction
  • Teneral: of, relating to, or constituting a state of the imago of an insect immediately after molting during which it is soft and immature in coloring.
  • Thanatosis: “death drop” insect use to evade capture. Feigning death is a technique used by lots of different critters, including the opossum.
  • Thigmotropism: the turning or bending of a plant or other organism in response to a touch stimulus (what causes a vine to wrap around a tree, for example)
This is a Rose-Breasted Grosbeak with bilateral gynandromorphism. It’s male on the right and female on the left. [I did not take this photo. It’s from the Powdermill Nature Reserve.]

Travels of a Certified California Naturalist

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