Tag Archives: Foxtail Barley

At the Sacramento and Colusa Wildlife Refuges, 05-06-19

Certified California Naturalist, Roxanne Moger and I went out to the Sacramento National Wildlife Refuge around 6:00 am this morning. The weather was beautiful today, but there wasn’t a lot to see at the preserve. We’re kind of in between seasons, so the large flocks of birds have all left, but the insects (like dragonflies, damselflies, and orb-weaver spiders) haven’t arrived yet. We did see swarms of Painted Lady butterflies and some Cabbage White, but none of the other species normally seen there in the late spring/early summer.

Roxanne did all the driving, but we stopped a couple of time to get out of the car and walk parts of the trail or explore the boundaries of the park-and-stretch areas. Some of the vernal pools on the site were in bloom: all golden yellow and purple with Goldfields and Downingia. Just beautiful.

Although the species list at the end of the day wasn’t as long or as varied as I’d like, I did like the fact that I saw a few things I’d never seen before and learned more about some species than I’d known before. That’s what really makes these outings fun.

A large fly landed on the passenger side mirror of the car partway through the auto-tour and at first I thought it was a Robber Fly (those guys are pretty big). We were both intrigued by the fly’s huge goggle-like eyes and his tenaciousness.  He held onto that mirror for quite a long time.

When I got home, I looked up the fly to see if I could find its scientific name and found that it was actually a male Striped (or Lined) Horsefly, Tabanus lineola. I’d never seen one before. And, of course, once I find something new to me, I have to research it more.  Never having encountered a Horsefly before, I was surprised to learn that although the males drink nectar, the females drink blood (usually from large mammals like livestock). She had scissor-like mouth parts that slice into the skin so she can get to the blood. This species is usually found along the east coast and Gulf of Mexico, so it was something of a surprise to find it here… assuming I got the ID correct.

We also got to see a male Red-Winged Blackbird flaring his epaulets at a female, and a pair of Brown-Headed Cowbirds performing what we thought was courtship behavior.  The two birds sat across from one another, then one ruffled its feathers, opened its wings a bit and bowed down at the other, and the other responded in kind.

Roxanne and I inferred the behavior was “courtship” but, from what I read, after I got home, what we were seeing was actually two males trying to outdo one another in a machismo contest.  Apparently, the females don’t respond well to the males’ bows, which they see as aggressive, so the males only bow to one another. (You can read more here.)  The males open their wings to one another, and to females, to show how mature they are. Juveniles have pale markings on the inside of the wings.

You can see the video snippet I took of the birds HERE.

CLICK HERE for the full album of photos.

And we found a couple of Black Phoebe nests, one stuffed full of babies who were almost fully fledged. They were stacked up, one on top of the other, with their tails sticking out over the edge of the nest. And toward the end of the auto tour route we came across a dead tree where there was a Western Meadowlark, a Red-Winged Blackbird and a tiny Song Sparrow all singing their respective songs.

We caught glimpses of American Goldfinches and Bullock’s Orioles, and hear Bitterns, but didn’t see any. One oddity was sighting a Mute Swan in the permanent wetlands area. That was odd because swans hardly ever go into the refuge, and Mute Swans are actually an invasive species. Unlike the Tundra Swans, the Mute Swans are super-aggressive and destroy the habitat they live in by ripping up water-plants from the roots.

When we were done at the Sacramento refuge, we decided to go over to the Colusa National Wildlife Refuge to show Roxanne the day-roost of the Black-Crowned Night Herons at the end of the auto-tour there. We were astonished to discover that the auto-tour there was roped off so no one could get to it… but the rope and signage was only visible AFTER you entered the refuge and started driving down the route. Stupid. They should have put the signs on the front gate or in the parking area.  A “manager” who showed up a little while after did, said that the auto-route was shut down because they were short handed and couldn’t patrol it well enough. Sad.

So, we didn’t do that tour and instead walked around a little bit in the native flower garden they have near the restroom facility.  Along part of a path near the garden, Roxanne found some galls we’d never seen before: the gall of the Elm Balloon-Gall Aphid, Eriosoma lanuginosum.

According to what I’ve read, the galls are initiated by a “fundatrix”, a parthenogenetic female aphid whose presence causes an extreme enlargement of the soft cell tissue on one side of the leaf. The galls are hollow and feel rubbery. They start out green and are covered with fine white hairs (which we saw) and turn brown as they age.

Inside the gall the fundatrix has her babies which are wingless and yellow until they mature. There can also be second generation aphids, called “alates” (usually winged individuals) which are dark green to black and wax powdered. Not all of the adults grow wings, however, and wing-growth seemed to be associated to crowding inside the galls, a short supply of food, and/or changes in the environment. Nature is so cool!

After walking around a bit, we headed back home to Sacramento and got there around 3:00 pm.

Species List:

1. American Avocet, Recurvirostra americana,
2. American Bittern, Botaurus lentiginosus,
3. American Coot, Fulica americana.
4. American Crow, Corvus brachyrhynchos,
5. American Goldfinch, Spinus tristis,
6. American Robin, Turdus migratorius,
7. Anna’s Hummingbird, Calypte anna,
8. Annual Yellow Sweet Clover, Melilotus indicus,
9. Arches Moth, Habrosyne sp.
10. Bird’s Foot Trefoil, Lotus corniculatus,
11. Black Phoebe, Sayornis nigricans,
12. Black-Tailed Jackrabbit, Lepus californicus,
13. Blessed Milk Thistle, Silybum marianum,
14. Blue Elderberry, Sambucus cerulea,
15. Bristly Oxtongue, Helminthotheca echioides,
16. Brown-Headed Cowbird, Molothrus ater,
17. Bullock’s Oriole, Icterus bullockii,
18. Bur Clover, Burr Medic, Medicago polymorpha,
19. California Flannelbush, Fremontodendron californicum,
20. California Ground Squirrel, Otospermophilus beecheyi,
21. California Poppy, Eschscholzia californica,
22. California Wild Rose, Rosa californica,
23. Canada Goose, Branta canadensis,
24. Cinnamon Teal, Anas cyanoptera,
25. Clark’s Grebe, Aechmophorus clarkia,
26. Cleveland Sage, Salvia clevelandii,
27. Common Mustard, Brassica rapa,
28. Convergent Lady Beetle, Hippodamia convergens,
29. Curly Dock, Rumex crispus,
30. Damselfly, Pacific Forktail, Ischnura cervula, (dots on thorax)
31. Damselfly, Sooty Dancer, Argia lugens, (no blue tip; rings around segments)
32. Desert Cottontail, Sylvilagus audubonii,
33. Dogtail Grass, Cynosurus echinatus,
34. Elm Balloon-Gall Aphid, Eriosoma lanuginosum,
35. Eurasian Collared Dove, Streptopelia decaocto,
36. Field Elm Tree, Smooth-Leaf Elm, Ulmus Minor,
37. Foothills Penstamon, Penstemon heterophyllus,
38. Foxtail Barley, Hordeum murinum ssp. glaucum,
39. Fremont Cottonwood Tree, Populus fremontii,
40. Fuller’s Teasel, Wild Teasel, Dipsacus fullonum,
41. Goldfields, Contra Costa Goldfields, Lasthenia conjugens,
42. Great Egret, Ardea alba,
43. Greater White-Fronted Goose, Anser albifrons,
44. Greenbottle Fly, Lucilia sericata,
45. Himalayan Blackberry, Rubus armeniacus,
46. Hood Canarygrass, Phalaris paradoxa,
47. Hoover’s Downingia, Hoover’s Calicoflower, Downingia bella,
48. House Finch, Haemorhous mexicanus,
49. House Sparrow, Passer domesticus,
50. Jimson Weed, Datura stramonium,
51. Killdeer, Charadrius vociferous,
52. Large Oxtongue Aphid, Uroleucon picridis,
53. Marsh Wren, Cistothorus palustris,
54. Mourning Dove, Zenaida macroura,
55. Mute Swan, Cygnus olor,
56. Narrowleaf Milkweed, Asclepias fascicularis,
57. Northern Paper Wasp, Polistes fuscatus,
58. Northern Pintail, Anas acuta,
59. Northern Shoveler, Anas clypeata,
60. Oleander Aphid, Aphis nerii,
61. Pacific Pond Turtle, Western Pond Turtle, Actinemys marmorata,
62. Pacific Tree Frog, Chorus Frog, Pseudacris regilla,
63. Painted Lady Butterfly, Vanessa cardui,
64. Pied-Billed Grebe, Podilymbus podiceps,
65. Plantain, Ribwort, Plantago lanceolata,
66. Poison Hemlock, Conium maculatum,
67. Purple Finch, Haemorhous purpureus,
68. Purple Needle Grass, Stipa pulchra,
69. Rabbit Tail Grass,Hare’s Tail Grass, Lagurus ovatus,
70. Red-Tailed Hawk, Buteo jamaicensis,
71. Red-Winged Blackbird, Agelaius phoeniceus,
72. Rush, California Bulrush, Schoenoplectus californicus,
73. Sedge, Pennsylvania Sedge, Carex pensylvanica
74. Showy Milkweed, Asclepias speciose,
75. Silverpuff, Microseris acuminata,
76. Snow Goose, Chen caerulescens,
77. Song Sparrow, Melospiza melodia,
78. Striped Horsefly, Tabanus lineola,
79. Tule, Schoenoplectus acutus,
80. Turkey Vulture, Cathartes aura,
81. Valley Popcorn Flower, Plagiobothrys canescens,
82. Varied Carpet Beetle, Anthrenus verbasci,
83. Variegated Meadowhawk Dragonfly, Sympetrum corruptum,
84. Western Fence Lizard, Sceloporus occidentalis,
85. Western Kingbird, Tyrannus verticalis,
86. Western Meadowlark, Sturnella neglecta,
87. Willow, Gooding’s Willow, Salix gooddingii

It was “Buggy” Out There Today, 04-27-19

I got up a little before 6:00 am and headed out to the Effie Yeaw Nature Preserve for a walk.  I wanted to get there by 6:30 so I could beat the heat for today.  Actually, the weather was rather pleasant all day, but anything over 70° is uncomfortable for me when I’m outside.

When I got there, The-Other-Mary, Mary Messenger, another volunteer trail-walker at Effie Yeaw, was there wanting to join me, and my friend/naturalist/volunteer Roxanne Moger also showed up. So, we had a nice time looking at all the little stuff that was around us.

CLICK HERE for the full album of photos.

Roxanne and I were more focused on bugs and galls this time around than the larger animals, so we were moving really slowly, investigating the leaves of plants and using the macro-settings on our cameras.  I actually like the quality of the macro-photos better on my cell phone than on my camera (it can get in tighter and more clearly), so I was using that a lot.  The best finds of the day were made by Roxanne who discovered a Tiger Swallowtail butterfly in a tree and a California Alligator Lizard hiding in some clover.  The alligator lizards are super-common in Southern California, but we don’t see them much here, so finding one is always fun.

We located a Black Phoebe nest, found out where an Oak titmouse was hiding out in a tree (that was guarded at the moment we saw it by a Western Fence Lizard), and also saw a Starling leave her nesting cavity with a white glob in her beak. She threw the glob down in a field and kept on flying.  I’m assuming she was doing housekeeping and tossed the babies’ fecal sacs.

We saw a few deer, including a pair of bucks in their velvet. One of the bucks decided to do a head-scratching maneuver that, at the same time, flashed his junk at us.  Hah!  How rude!  I also came across a doe who was having a sneezing fit.  I don’t know if she snuffled up something while she was browsing or what, but she was loud!

The elderberry bushes are just starting to flower-out, as are the Buckeye chestnut trees. The few plum trees in the preserve already have plums on them, and some were starting to turn purple.

On the walk, we came across both Oak Apple wasp galls and Live Oak wasp galls.  And, as for the insects, I saw Pipevine Swallowtail caterpillars and butterflies, Painted Lady caterpillars and butterflies, some Tussock Moth caterpillars, Craneflies, some bumble bees, hover flies, damselflies (including a male and female Pacific Forktail), Soldier Beetles, ladybugs, aphids and some Spittle Bug spit and other critters. There are so many teeny-tinies around.

By this time of the spring, some of the butterflies are already looking pretty ragged. I saw several of them with tears in their wings and frayed edges.  I think some of the damage is done by the grasses that grow up around the flowers and plants the butterflies utilize. The razor-edges of the grass can cut human skin, so I can only imagine how quickly they can damage the fragile wings of the butterflies.

I walked for about 4 hours and then headed home.

Species List:

1. Acorn Woodpecker, Melanerpes formicivorus,
2. American Bullfrog, Lithobates catesbeianus,
3. Aphids, superfamily Aphidoidea,
4. Asian Lady Beetle, Harmonia axyridis,
5. Bedstraw, Cleavers, Galium aparine,
6. Billbug, Weevil, Sphenophorus sp.,
7. Black Phoebe, Sayornis nigricans,
8. Black Walnut Erineum Mite galls, Eriophyes erinea,
9. Black Walnut, Juglans nigra,
10. Blue Elderberry, Sambucus cerulea,
11. Blue Oak, Quercus douglasii,
12. Blue Penstemon, Penstemon azureus,
13. Bush Monkey Flower, Mimulus aurantiacus,
14. Bushtit, Psaltriparus minimus,
15. California Buckeye Tree, Aesculus californica,
16. California Ground Squirrel, Otospermophilus beecheyi
17. California Manroot, Bigroot, Marah fabaceus,
18. California Pipevine Swallowtail butterfly, Battus philenor hirsuta,
19. California Pipevine, Dutchman’s Pipe, Aristolochia californica,
20. California Poppy, Eschscholzia californica,
21. California Scrub Jay, Aphelocoma californica,
22. Camel Cricket, Gammarotettix bilobatus,
23. Catface Spider, Araneus gemmoides,
24. Columbian Black-Tailed Deer, Odocoileus hemionus columbianus,
25. Common Catchfly, Silene gallica,
26. Common Fringepod, Thysanocarpus curvipes,
27. Common Popcorn Flower, Plagiobothrys stipitatus,
28. Common Yarrow, Achillea millefolium,
29. Convergent Lady Beetle nymph, Hippodamia convergens,
30. Cranefly, family Tipulidae,
31. Deer Grass, Muhlenbergia rigens,
32. Desert Cottontail, Sylvilagus audubonii,
33. Dog Vomit Slime Mold, Fuligo septica,
34. Dogtail Grass, Cynosurus echinatus,
35. European Starling, Sturnus vulgaris,
36. Fiery Skipper, Hylephila phyleus,
37. Foxtail Barley, Hordeum murinum,
38. Gold Dust Lichen, Chrysothrix candelaris,
39. Green Shield Lichen, Flavoparmelia caperata,
40. House Wren, Troglodytes aedon,
41. Indian Paintbrush, Castilleja affinis,
42. Interior Live Oak, Quercus wislizeni,
43. Italian Thistle, Carduus pycnocephalus,
44. Ithuriel’s Spears, Triteleia laxa,
45. Leafhopper, Chlorotettix sp.,
46. Miniature Lupine, Lupinus bicolor,
47. Moth caterpillar, possibly Amphipyra brunneoatra
48. Oak Apple Wasp Gall, Andricus quercuscalifornicus
49. Oak Titmouse, Baeolophus inornatus,
50. Oakmoss Lichen, Evernia prunastri,
51. Olive Tree, Olea europaea,
52. Pacific Forktail damselfly, Ischnura cervula,
53. Painted Lady butterfly, Vanessa cardui,
54. Periwinkle, Vinca major,
55. Pink Grass, Windmill Pink, Petrorhagia dubia,
56. Pipevine Swallowtail butterfly, Battus philenor hirsuta,
57. Plum, Prunus cerasifera,
58. Poison Oak, Toxicodendron diversilobum,
59. Red-Shouldered Hawk, Buteo lineatus,
60. Rio Grande Wild Turkey, Meleagris gallopavo intermedia,
61. Rock Shield Lichen, Xanthoparmelia conspersa,
62. Rose Clover, Trifolium hirtum,
63. Rusty Tussock Moth caterpillar, Orgyia antiqua,
64. Sedge, Tall Cyperus, Cyperus eragrostis,
65. Showy Milkweed, Asclepias speciose,
66. Soldier Beetle, Brown Leatherwing Beetle, Pacificanthia consors,
67. Spittlebug, Meadow Spittlebug, Philaenus spumarius,
68. Spotted Towhee, Pipilo maculatus,
69. Spring Vetch, Vicia sativa,
70. Strawberry Clover, Trifolium fragiferum,
71. Sunburst Lichen, Xanthoria elegans,
72. Valley Oak, Quercus lobata,
73. Valley Tassels, Castilleja attenuate,
74. Western Bluebird, Sialia mexicana,
75. Western Fence Lizard, Sceloporus occidentalis,
76. Western Redbud, Cercis occidentalis,
77. Western Tiger Swallowtail butterfly, Papilio rutulus,
78. White Horehound, Marrubium vulgare,
79. Winter Vetch, Vicia villosa,
80. Yerba Santa, Eriodictyon californicum,

Many Wrens and “Blue Bellies”, 03-30-19

I got up at 6:30 this morning and had some breakfast before heading out to the Effie Yeaw Nature Preserve again.

It was a gorgeous day weatherwise – sunny, cool in the morning and warm in the afternoon — so much so that we were actually able to keep the house open for most of the day.  It was about 43° when I got to the preserve and about 65° when I left.

CLICK HERE for the album of photos.

At the preserve, I didn’t walk the route that would have taken me by the spot where I spotted the hive last week; I checked out different trails.  There were no special stand outs during this walk, but there were House Wrens everywhere, singing their little hearts out.  I saw two males fighting over the same perches on which to sing; they must have had territories that overlapped or something. For such tiny guys, I’m surprised by how ferocious they can be.  I also saw Acorn Woodpeckers and European Starlings fighting over nest cavities. The Starlings are invasive, and the woodpeckers and other cavity-nesting birds lose breeding spots because of them.

I saw a few female Starlings doing their “baby bird begging” thing to try to get males to feed them. They sit out in open on conspicuous branches and flap their wings against their sides, gaping and calling out. So funny to watch.

Lots and lots of Audubon’s Warblers… I don’t remember ever seeing this many around here before. (They’re a kind of Yellow-rumped Warbler, differentiated from the others by their field markings.  They’re also affectionately referred to as “Butter Butts” for the bright yellow splotch on their rump where the tail attaches to the body.)

On a different part of the trail, I heard a California Ground Squirrel giving out a repeated alarm call, so I tracked it down, and found it in the field right across form the nature center. I was astonished by the fact that it had a gash in its nose and blood on the fur around its mouth and face!  The mamas can be incredibly brave and aggressive when it comes to protecting their burrows and babies, I know, but I’d never seen one in this condition before. There was also a bite mark on the ruff around its neck.  It was roughed up!

The squirrels are supposed to have different calls for land-based predators and air-based predators (like chickens do), but I don’t know their calls well enough to distinguish one from the other. I imagine it had fought a domestic cat (they hunt in the preserve) or something like that, and had to give it props for its tenacity, to keep on kicking and having the wherewithal to alert its fellow ground squirrels of danger nearby.

I saw lots of Pipevine Swallowtail Butterflies throughout the preserve. This is their time of year.  I was hoping to see some eggs but didn’t find any on this trip.  Maybe next time.

There’s lots of tall-tall grasses and sedges out right now, and all of the trees are budding their new leaves so the whole place is green-green-green.  I love this time of year!

I’ve been sort of dissatisfied with the macro photos I’ve been getting out of my camera, though, so I pulled out my cell phone to take some of the super close-up shots I wanted of plants and stuff.  The phone takes excellent close-ups, but it’s sometimes hard to manage holding that and my camera at the same time.  What we do for photos!

On my way out the preserve, I came across a male Mourning Dove doing his coo-ing thing from a tree branch. I love the way their whole chest and neck swell up with their song.  That cooing is most often sung by the male birds (not the females) and is used to “woo” the females.  Cooo-oooo-woo-woo-woo.

Because it was warming up outside, the Western Fence Lizards were out in force in some places.  (They’re also called Blue Bellies” for the bright blue underbellies of the males.)  Saw a lot of the boy doing “push-ups” and challenging rivals on different logs.

I walked for about 3 ½ hours and then headed back home

Species List: 

1. Acorn Woodpecker, Melanerpes formicivorus
2. American Kestrel, Falco sparverius
3. Audubon’s Warbler, Setophaga auduboni auduboni
4. Bedstraw, Velcro-Grass, Sticky Willy, Galium aparine
5. Black-Headed Grosbeak, Pheucticus melanocephalus
6. Blessed Milk Thistle, Silybum marianum
7. Blue Dicks, Dichelostemma capitatum
8. Bullfrog, American Bullfrog, Lithobates catesbeianus
9. Burr Chervil, Anthriscus caucalis
10. Bushtit, Psaltriparus minimus
11. California Geranium, Geranium californicum
12. California Ground Squirrel, Otospermophilus beecheyi
13. California King Snake, Lampropeltis getula californiae
14. California Manroot, Marah fabaceus
15. California Pipevine Swallowtail Butterfly, Battus philenor hirsuta
16. California Pipevine, Aristolochia californica
17. California Scrub Jay, Aphelocoma californica
18. California Towhee, Melozone crissalis
19. Columbian Black-Tailed Deer, Odocoileus hemionus columbianus
20. Common Pepper Grass, Pepperweed, Lepidium densiflorum
21. Dog Vomit Slime Mold, Fuligo septica
22. Eastern Fox Squirrel, Sciurus niger
23. European Starling, Sturnus vulgaris
24. Foxtail Barley, Hordeum murinum
25. Golden-Crowned Sparrow, Zonotrichia atricapilla
26. House Wren, Troglodytes aedon
27. Interior Live Oak, Quercus wislizeni
28. Lesser Goldfinch, Spinus psaltria
29. Little Plantain, Plantago pusilla
30. Mallard, Anas platyrhynchos
31. Miner’s Lettuce, Claytonia perfoliata
32. Miniature Lupine, Lupinus bicolor
33. Mourning Dove, Zenaida macroura
34. Northern Pacific Rattlesnake, Crotalus oreganus
35. Oak Titmouse, Baeolophus inornatus
36. Pacific Gopher Snake, Pituophis catenifer catenifer
37. Peregrine Falcon, Wek-Wek, Falco peregrinus
38. Pleated Ink Cap, Parasola plicatilis
39. Poison Oak, Toxicodendron diversilobum
40. Puffball Fungus, Bovista dermoxantha
41. Red-Shouldered Hawk, Buteo lineatus
42. Rio Grande Wild Turkey, Meleagris gallopavo intermedia
43. Rock Shield Lichen, Xanthoparmelia lavicola
44. Saw-Whet Owl, Sophia, Aegolius acadicus
45. Shepherd’s Purse, Capsella bursa-pastoris
46. Soap Plant, Wavy Leafed Soaproot, Chlorogalum pomeridianum
47. Spotted Sandpiper, Actitis macularius
48. Stork’s Bill, Big Heron Bill, Erodium botrys
49. Tree Swallow, Tachycineta bicolor
50. Turkey Vulture, Cathartes aura
51. Water Fern, Azolla filiculoides
52. Western Bluebird, Sialia mexicana
53. Western Fence Lizard, Blue Belly, Sceloporus occidentalis
54. Western Redbud, Cercis occidentalis
55. Western Tanager, Piranga ludoviciana
56. White-Breasted Nuthatch, Sitta carolinensis